Figure 6.

Effects of symbiont elimination on fitness parameters and phenotype of Elasmostethus humeralis. (A) Adult emergence rate (%). Emerged insects per total insects and P values of Fisher's exact probability test are indicated. (B) Developmental time to adulthood (days). Means and standard deviations are shown. Sample sizes and P values of Mann-Whitney U test are indicated. (C) Body size in terms of thorax width (mm). Means and standard deviations are shown. Sample sizes and P values of Mann-Whitney U test are indicated. (D) A normal adult female from a control egg mass. (E) A symbiont-free adult female from a surface-sterilized egg mass, exhibiting abnormal coloration. Bars, 2.5 mm.

Kikuchi et al. BMC Biology 2009 7:2   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-2
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