Resolution:
## Figure 1.
Relationship between virtual flight path and . To obtain Z-score valueZ-scores (shown upper right of each graph), flight data for each butterfly tested in
the flight simulator were analyzed using a Rayleigh test. Z, which is the critical value for the Rayleigh test, is calculated from the following
formula: Z = nr^{2}, where n is the number of observations and r is the magnitude of the mean vector. Only butterflies with a Z-score 500 or above have a flight path that shows clear directionality. Virtual flight
paths were constructed by starting in the center of the square and plotting each direction
interval consecutively as one unit length [5].
Zhu |