Table 5

Fossil calibrations. All internal calibrations for Neornithes are treated as minimum ages. External calibrations are treated as bounded (lower, upper) constraints. See [57] for fossil citations and details. See Figure 2 for placement of calibrations in the alternative trees.

Fossil ID

Calibration

Age (MY)

Source


1

Crown Pici

30

[57]

2

Stem Upupidae + Phoeniculidae

47.5

[57]

3

Stem Coraciidae + Brachypteraciidae

47.5

[57]

4

Stem Trogoniformes

53

[57]

5

Stem Coliiformes

55

[57]

6

Stem Strigiformes

55

[57]

7

Crown Pandionidae

37

[57]

8

Stem Anatidae

66

[10]

9

Crown Sulidae

33

[57]

10

Stem Fregatidae

53

[57]

11

Stem Sphenisciformes

62

[24]

12

Stem Jacanidae

30

[57]

13

Stem Apodiformes

53

[57]

14

Stem Trochilidae

30

[109]

15

Crown Pteroclididae

30

[57]

16

Stem Phoenicopteriformes

30

[57]

17

Stem Phaethontidae

55

[57]

18

Stem Gruidae

30

[57]

20

Alligator-caiman

66–71

[91]

21

Bird-crocodile

243–251

[91]


Brown et al. BMC Biology 2008 6:6   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-6-6

Open Data