NPA induces abnormal PPBs and altered cell divisions. (A-B) Normal anticlinal cell divisions (arrowheads in A) and transverse organization of cortical microtubules in NPA untreated cells. (C-D) Inclined and periclinal cell divisions (red arrowheads in C) with altered organization of GFP-MAP4 labeled cortical microtubules (red arrowheads in D) in NPA treated cells. A, C show single median sections and B, D show 3-D projections. Note that the first round of cell division (yellow arrowheads) is normal and a shift in the cell division planes occurs in the second round. (E-F) Formation of periclinal PPBs and spindles (arrowheads in E) and periclinal phragmoplasts (arrowhead in F). Bidirectional arrows in A, C, E and F show the long axes of the cells. (G-L) NPA treatment sometimes causes formation of two separate PPBs (arrowheads in G) equidistant from the nucleus, which results in tilted spindle formation (I) and phragmoplast initiation (J), phragmoplast growth (K) and cell plate docking (L) at sites marked by either of the PPBs (arrowheads) (see 11: Movie 11). G shows 3-D projection and H-L show single median sections. Bars represent 10 μm and time is indicated in minutes.
Dhonukshe et al. BMC Biology 2005 3:11 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-3-11