Segmental identity and cerebellar granule cell induction in rhombomere 1
1 MRC Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, King's College London, 4th Floor, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
2 Current address Department of Anatomy, University of California, San Francisco, Mission Bay, 19B, Genetics Dev 448-F, San Francisco, CA. 94143 - 2822, USA
BMC Biology 2004, 2:14 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-2-14Published: 15 June 2004
Cerebellar granule cell precursors are specifically generated within the hindbrain segment, rhombomere 1, which is bounded rostrally by the midbrain/hindbrain isthmus and caudally by the boundary of the Hoxa2 expression domain. While graded signals from the isthmus have a demonstrable patterning role within this region, the significance of segmental identity for neuronal specification within rhombomere 1 is unexplored. We examined the response of granule cell precursors to the overexpression of Hoxa2, which normally determines patterns of development specific to the hindbrain. How much does the development of the cerebellum, a midbrain/hindbrain structure, reflect its neuromeric origin as a hindbrain segment?
We show that a Gbx2-positive, Otx2-/Hoxa2-negative territory corresponding to rhombomere 1 forms prior to an identifiable isthmic organiser. Early global overexpression of Hoxa2 at embryonic day 0 has no effect on the expression of isthmic signalling molecules or the allocation of rhombomere 1 territory, but selectively results in the loss of granule cell markers at embryonic day 6 and the depletion of cell bodies from the external granule cell layer. By comparison the trochlear nucleus and locus coeruleus form normally in ventral rhombomere 1 under these conditions. Microsurgery, coupled with electroporation, to target Hoxa2 overexpression to rhombic lip precursors, reveals a profound, autonomous respecification of migration. Rhombic lip derivatives, normally destined to occupy the external granule cell layer, violate the cerebellar boundary to form a ventrolateral nucleus in a position comparable to that occupied by rhombic lip derived neurons in rhombomere 2.
Different overexpression strategies reveal that the recognition of migration cues by granule cell precursors is dependent on their identity as rhombomere 1 derivatives. Segmental patterning cues operate autonomously within the rhombic lip precursor pool. By contrast, a subset of coextensive nuclei is refractory to ectopic Hoxa2 and is presumably induced solely by isthmic organiser activity. Thus, graded (isthmic) and segmental mechanisms may operate exclusively of one another in the specification of different neuronal populations within rhombomere 1. The early designation of an Otx2-negative, Hoxa2-negative region, prior to the appearance of the isthmic organiser, is a key initial step in the specification of the cerebellum.