Table 1

Predictions and statistical tests for effects of low-dose radiation on pale grass blue butterflies (Hiyama et al. [8])
Analyses Expectations Findings
Spatial variation If radiation was the causative agent, we should expect more abnormalities in samples from Fukushima Increased frequency of abnormalities at Fukushima
Temporal variation If radiation was the causative agent, we should expect fewer abnormalities in samples from the first generation not exposed to radiation compared to second and third generations Increased frequency of abnormalities in second and third generations
Radiation experiment If radiation was the causative agent, we should expect more abnormalities in animals exposed to internal and external radiation in the lab Increased frequency of abnormalities following lab exposure to radiation, but not in controls
Survival rate If radiation had negative effects, we should expect delayed growth and reduced survival Reduced growth and survival in irradiated samples

Møller and Mousseau

Møller and Mousseau BMC Biology 2013 11:92   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-92

Open Data