Additional file 9: Figure S4.

Latrunculin A, cytochalasin E or cytochalasin D alter IPMC morphology and enhance HIV-1 release from MDMs. HIV-infected MDMs were treated with 2 μM latrunculin A (Lat), 1 μM cytochalasin E (CCE), 5 μM cytochalasin D (CCD) or DMSO (control) for 2 hours. (A) Cells were stained with an anti-p17 antibody that only recognizes mature virus particles and Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated phalloidin to label actin. The images show single optical sections acquired with a Leica SPE confocal microscope. The cells marked by white squares are enlarged in the bottom row. Scale bars: 10 μm. (B) Single optical sections showing examples of compact, dispersed or both (mixed) compartments. Cells were stained with antibodies against CD81 and p17. (C) MDMs were analyzed according to the morphology of the IPMCs. Ten single optical sections through the cells were acquired, inspected for the presence of IPMCs, and cells containing either compact or dispersed IPMCs or both (mixed) were counted. (D) The amount of virus released during treatment of MDMs with the actin polymerization inhibitors was analyzed by p24 ELISA assay (AIDS and Cancer Virus Program NCI-Frederick, MD, USA). Results are shown relative to the control untreated MDMs (DMSO).

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Mlcochova et al. BMC Biology 2013 11:89   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-89