Reduced smooth muscle differentiation and transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) signaling in neural crest cell (NCC)-specific integrin-linked kinase (ILK) knockout (NKO) mutant outflow tract (OFT). (A-B’) Reduced expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) in NKO mutant aortic arch (aa) that is derived from NCCs (tdTomato+) (B,B’, arrow) at E12.5. Smooth muscle differentiation from non-neural crest (tdTomato-) appears to be normal (B,B’, arrowhead) (es esophagus, scg superior cervical ganglia, tr trachea). (C-D) Reduced TGFβ2 expression in E9.5 NKO mutant OFT (arrow) revealed by wholemount in situ hybridization. (E) Western blot using ILKf/f;Cre+ mutant and control NCCs with antibodies to TGFβ2 and total Smad2 and phosphorylated Smad2. (E') quantitative assessment of western blot results (E) showing reduced TGFβ2 expression and Smad2 phosphorylation.
Dai et al. BMC Biology 2013 11:107 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-107