Outflow tract (OFT) malformation in neural crest cell (NCC)-specific integrin-linked kinase (ILK) knockout (NKO) mutant mice. (A,B)In situ hybridization with a probe to connexin 40 (Cx40) showing an enlarged OFT in E10.5 NKO mutant embryo (arrow). (C,D) Cranial hemorrhage in the nasal and temporal regions of NKO mutant head at E13. (E,F) An enlarged common arterial trunk (CAT) and hypoplastic thymus (th, arrowhead) in NKO mutants at E13, compared to a well-defined aorta (ao) and pulmonary artery (pa) in control littermates. (G-J) A markedly enlarged OFT in E11.5 NKO mutant embryos that protrudes in between the tongue and pharynx ((G,H), saggital section; (I,J), transection; 6th, sixth arch artery). (K-P) An enlarged CAT, ventricular septal defect (VSD), thinner ventricular myocardium, hypoplastic mandible (m) and deformed pharynx (px) in NKO mutant embryos at E13 ((K,L), saggital section; (M-P), transection). (Q-T) MRI and 3D reconstruction of control and NKO mutant hearts at E13 ((Q,R), ventral view; (S,T) right view) show VSD, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and a large CAT in NKO mutants. aoa aortic arch, da ductus arteriosus, lv left ventricle, rv right ventricle, t tongue, tr trachea.
Dai et al. BMC Biology 2013 11:107 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-107