Table 4

Stylopodial scaling in mammals of different sizes.

Analysis

(x vs. y)

Sample

N

m

m 95% CI

b

b to 95% to CI

R2

Sim


LF vs. CF

< 20 kg

136

0.8868

0.9335 to 0.8424

-0.3733

-0.2921 to -0.4545

0.9095

0

> 20 kg

52

1.0000

1.1370 to 0.8795

-0.4907

-0.1714 to -0.8100

0.7945

G

< 50 kg

150

0.9486

0.9987 to 0.9009

-0.4715

-0.3819 to -0.5611

0.8993

G

> 50 kg

38

1.1331

1.2731 to 1.0084

-0.8317

-0.4935 to -1.1699

0.8806

> G, < E

< 100 kg

158

0.9659

1.0123 to 0.9216

-0.5000

-0.4155 to -0.5845

0.9119

G

> 100 kg

30

1.1059

1.2659 to 0.9661

-0.7572

-0.3679 to -1.1465

0.8774

G


LH vs. CH

< 20 kg

135

0.8778

0.9248 to 0.8331

-0.3345

-0.2567 to -0.4124

0.9073

0

> 20 kg

52

1.1541

1.2900 to 1.0326

-0.7954

-0.4848 to -1.1060

0.8459

> G, < E

< 50 kg

149

0.9040

0.9990 to 0.9040

-0.4445

-0.3613 to -0.5277

0.9060

0

> 50 kg

38

1.1856

1.3524 to 1.0394

-0.8774

-0.4879 to -1.2668

0.8475

> G, < E

< 100 kg

157

0.9710

1.0166 to 0.9274

-0.4764

-0.3967 to -0.5560

0.9161

G

> 100 kg

30

1.1229

1.3132 to 0.9602

-0.7114

-0.2646 to -1.1582

0.8352

G


LF vs. BM

< 20 kg

136

2.6288

2.7825 to 2.4836

-1.7421

-1.4756 to -2.0086

0.8892

0

> 20 kg

52

2.8571

3.2511 to 2.5108

-1.8964

-0.9788 to -2.8141

0.7920

G

< 50 kg

150

2.7619

2.9166 to 2.6754

-1.9510

-1.6751 to -2.2270

0.8873

0

> 50 kg

38

3.1523

3.5377 to 2.8089

-2.6399

-1.7089 to -3.5709

0.8831

G

< 100 kg

158

2.8104

2.9526 to 2.6750

-2.0305

-1.7717 to -2.2893

0.9025

0

> 100 kg

30

3.0497

3.5022 to 2.6557

-2.3587

-1.2593 to -3.4582

0.8715

G


CF vs. BM

< 20 kg

138

2.9559

3.0735 to 2.8429

-0.6266

-0.4858 to -0.7675

0.9471

G

> 20 kg

62

2.8638

3.0353 to 2.7020

-0.5040

-0.1723 to -0.8358

0.9492

G

< 50 kg

153

2.9054

3.0013 to 2.8126

-0.5716

-0.4504 to -0.6928

0.9592

G

> 50 kg

47

2.7816

2.9651 to 2.6094

-0.3222

0.0436 to -0.6880

0.9546

E

< 100 kg

164

2.9117

2.9945 to 2.8312

-0.5784

-0.4698 to -0.6870

0.9674

< G, > E

> 100 kg

36

2.7946

3.0538 to 2.5575

-0.3497

0.1751 to -0.8745

0.9351

G, E


LH vs. BM

< 20 kg

135

2.4386

2.5604 to 2.3225

-1.1878

-0.9858 to -1.3898

0.9192

0

> 20 kg

52

2.9807

3.2978 to 2.6940

-2.0078

-1.2791 to -2.7365

0.8728

G

< 50 kg

149

2.5866

2.7051 to 2.4734

-1.4091

-1.2063 to -1.6120

0.9245

0

> 50 kg

38

3.0525

3.4941 to 2.6667

-2.1794

-1.1501 to -3.2088

0.8392

G

< 100 kg

157

2.6465

2.7582 to 2.5394

-1.5013

-1.3060 to -1.6966

0.9321

0

> 100 kg

30

2.9405

3.4742 to 2.4888

-1.8798

-0.6326 to -3.1269

0.8127

G


CH vs. BM

< 20 kg

138

2.7768

2.8898 to 2.6683

-0.2550

-0.1255 to -0.3845

0.9447

E

> 20 kg

62

2.5793

2.7425 to 2.4258

0.0509

0.3671 to -0.2653

0.9434

E, S

< 50 kg

153

2.7188

2.8130 to 2.6277

-0.1941

-0.0793 to -0.3088

0.9551

E

> 50 kg

47

2.5612

2.7123 to 2.4184

0.1031

0.4070 to -0.2008

0.9635

E, S

< 100 kg

164

2.7253

2.8067 to 2.6463

-0.2005

-0.0972 to -0.3038

0.9640

E

> 100 kg

36

2.6488

2.8634 to 2.4504

-0.0887

0.3518 to -0.5293

0.9500

E, S


LF vs. LH

< 20 kg

135

1.0776

1.1143 to 1.0422

-0.2261

-0.1618 to -0.2904

0.9619

-

> 20 kg

52

0.9586

1.0632 to 0.8642

0.0374

0.2839 to -0.2092

0.8666

-

< 50 kg

149

1.0672

1.1041 to 1.0315

-0.2079

-0.1414 to -0.2744

0.9564

-

> 50 kg

38

1.0327

1.1337 to 0.9407

-0.1509

0.0956 to -0.3973

0.9236

-

< 100 kg

157

1.0613

1.0945 to 1.0291

-0.1983

-0.1374 to -0.2592

0.9624

-

> 100 kg

30

1.0371

1.1743 to 0.9160

-0.1629

0.1727 to -0.4984

0.8965

-


CH+F vs. BM

< 20 kg

138

2.9032

2.9989 to 2.8105

-1.3628

-1.2223 to -1.5032

0.9634

-

> 20 kg

62

2.7519

2.8828 to 2.6269

-1.1186

-0.8251 to -1.4120

0.9674

-

< 50 kg

153

2.8383

2.9165 to 2.7622

-1.2743

-1.1542 to -1.3945

0.9714

-

> 50 kg

47

2.6819

2.8173 to 2.5530

-0.9409

-0.6286 to -1.2531

0.9731

-

< 100 kg

164

2.8409

2.9084 to 2.7750

-1.2778

-1.1709 to 1.3846

0.9771

-

> 100 kg

36

2.7442

2.9343 to 2.5663

-1.0954

-0.6491 to -1.5416

0.9630

-


Standardized Major Axis equation shown in the format y = mx + b. The particular theoretical scaling model (Sim.) followed by the slope is represented by G, geometric similarity, E, elastic similarity, or S, static similarity. Scaling patterns that fall between models are represented by > or <, and those that do not follow any pattern (that is, above or below all predicted models) are represented by a 0. BM, body mass; CF, femoral circumference; CH, humeral circumference; CH+F, total humeral and femoral circumference; LF, femoral length; LH, humeral length

Campione and Evans BMC Biology 2012 10:60   doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-60

Open Data