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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

Nicolás E Campione1* and David C Evans2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2

2 Department of Palaeobiology, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 2C6

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BMC Biology 2012, 10:60  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-60

Published: 10 July 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Limb measurement and body mass data. Table of measurements of all the extant taxa used in the present study, as well as the limb measurements of the non-avian dinosaurian taxa shown in Table 6.

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Additional file 2:

Table S1. Raw and PIC stylopodial scaling in a subset of the mammalian dataset and non-avian reptiles. Mammalian subset corresponds to all taxa < 168 kg in order to better approximate body mass range in the sample of non-avian reptiles. Standardized Major Axis equation shown in the format y = mx + b (b = 0 in PIC). The particular theoretical scaling model (Sim.) followed by the slope is represented by G, geometric similarity, E, elastic similarity, or S, static similarity. Scaling patterns that fall between models are represented by > or <, and those that do not follow any pattern (that is, above or below all predicted models) are represented by a 0.

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Additional file 3:

Table S2. Phylogenetically corrected stylopodial scaling in mammals and non-avian reptiles. Scaling equation shown in the format y = mx. The particular theoretical scaling model (Sim.) followed by the slope is represented by G, geometric similarity, E, elastic similarity, or S, static similarity. Scaling patterns that fall between models are represented by > or <, and those that do not follow any pattern (that is, above or below all predicted models) are represented by a 0.

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Additional file 4:

Table S3. Raw and PIC stylopodial scaling in Artiodactyla and Bovidae. Standardized Major Axis equation shown in the format y = mx + b (b = 0 in PIC). The particular theoretical scaling model (Sim.) followed by the slope is represented by G, geometric similarity, E, elastic similarity, or S, static similarity. Scaling patterns that fall between models are represented by > or <, and those that do not follow any pattern (that is, above or below all predicted models) are represented by a 0.

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Additional file 5:

Table S4. Predictive power of various body mass estimation equations. Bivariate and multiple regression statistics for various body mass proxies discussed here (that is, circumference and length of the humerus and femur). Statistics include the Percent Prediction Error (PPE), along with its upper and lower 95% PPE Confidence Intervals (PPE CI), the Standard Error of the Estimate (SEE), the Coefficient of Determination (R2), and the Akaike Information Criterion Score (AIC).

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Additional file 6:

Figure S1. Phylogenetic tree of mammalian and reptilian taxa included in this study. Topology is based on multiple published analyses mentioned in the text. Numbers indicate the branch lengths used in this study, measured in millions of years. Terminal branch lengths are most often given next to the species name.

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