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Open Access Research article

Population dynamics and habitat sharing of natural populations of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae

Marie-Anne Félix12* and Fabien Duveau12

Author Affiliations

1 Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS - University of Paris VII, 15 rue H. Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13, France

2 Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS - ENS - Inserm, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris cedex 05, France

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BMC Biology 2012, 10:59  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-59

Published: 25 June 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

List of Orsay samples (orchard and woods), with census and stages of C. elegans (Ce, green), C. briggsae (Cb, red) and C. sp. 13 (blue) individuals. Each sheet corresponds to a sampling date. The number of individuals of a given species is indicated in brackets in the column 'Caenorhabditis species ID', expressed as a ratio over the total number of tested individuals. The samples are identified with the letter O for Orsay, followed by a number. Sample numbers are according to chronological order of sampling. D, dauer larva; ad, adult. For 6 and 14 October, the apple part is abbreviated with B = Bottom, I = Inside, S = Side, T = Top. Empty cells denote absence of Caenorhabditis species in the corresponding sample.

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Additional file 2:

List of samples from non-Orsay locations (indicated by sheet names: Santeuil, Ivry, Plougasnou, Le Blanc). Each sample identifier starts with a letter indicating the location (S, I, P, B, respectively). The table indicates the census and stages of C. elegans (Ce, green) and C. briggsae (Cb, red) individuals at different sampling dates. The number of individuals of a given species is indicated in brackets in the column 'Caenorhabditis species ID', expressed as a ratio over the total number of tested individuals. In the Santeuil 31 Oct 2011 data, horizontal lines group samples that were isolated immediately next to each other, for example soil, moss and/or leaf litter next to a rotting stem (or two adjacent stems). Only one large proliferating population was isolated on that day, in a rotting stem (S168). Note that the Plougasnou area has been previously repeatedly sampled (mostly compost, isopods, snails) in [7,9] and also only yielded C. elegans.

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Additional file 3:

Spatial distribution of Caenorhabditis species in the Orsay orchard over 19 time points. Black dots: apple trees. Apple positions were noted using the tree(s) they were closest to. Empty square: apple with no Caenorhabditis. The apples with Caenorhabditis are indicated with their sample name, for example "O11", and color-coded according to the species that was/were found. Red: C. briggsae. Blue: C. elegans. Mauve: C. briggsae and C. elegans. Yellow: C. sp. 13. Orange: C. briggsae and C. sp. 13. Green: C. elegans and C. sp. 13. The size of the square is proportional to the Caenorhabditis population size. Representative for each population size are 1 to 10 individuals: apple O14; 11 to 100: apple O13; 102 to 103: apple O15; 103 to 104: apple O145; > 104: apple O535. The sampling date is indicated at the top left of each map; n: number of sampled apples [see Additional File 1 for scoring of these apples]. North is to the top.

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Additional file 4:

Spatial distribution of Caenorhabditis species at the scale of a few meters. Twenty apples in four groups of five apples were sampled below a tree on (A) 6 October 2008 and (B) 14 October 2008. The tree trunk is labeled with a black circle. The relative position of each group is shown and the detailed position of apples within a group (within 50 cm of each other) is shown in a close-up in the adjacent rectangle. Blue: apple with C. elegans, with light blue for proliferating populations. Red: C. briggsae, with pink for proliferating populations. Large font size denotes large population size [see Additional File 1 for data].

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Additional file 5:

Minimal generation time at 15°C, 21°C and 27°C of the four Caenorhabditis strains used in the competition assays. The minimal generation time (or age at sexual maturity) was estimated from the observation of N = 5 hermaphrodites for each of the four wild isolates grown at the different temperature conditions. JU1530, JU1918, JU1529 and JU2138 are respectively C. elegans isolates from Orsay and Santeuil and C. briggsae isolates from Orsay and Santeuil. Error bars indicate the standard error (SE) of the mean over individuals. A two-way ANOVA (indicated below the graph) was performed to analyze the effect on the age at maturity of the main variables species and temperature, the effect of strain nested in species and the species × temperature interaction term. The box-Cox transformation was applied to the dataset to meet the assumptions of homogeneity of variances. We next performed post-hoc Tukey's HSD test on strain to determine groups of statistical significance. Two bars are significantly different (P < 0.05) if they are not labeled with a same letter. Within each species, the strain genotype has no significant effect on age at maturity at any temperature. However, the two C. elegans strains present a lower age at maturity than the two C. briggsae strains at 15°C, but a higher age at maturity at 21°C and at 27°C. As expected, for both species the minimal generation time decreases when temperature increases.

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