Antigenic phenotypes over the course of 4 years of evolution across 100 replicate simulations starting from identical initial conditions. Replicate simulations were initialized with the end state of the 40-year simulation shown in Figure 2. Each panel shows an additional year of evolution, with black points representing the mean antigenic phenotypes of the 100 replicate simulations and gray lines representing the history of each mean antigenic phenotype.
Bedford et al. BMC Biology 2012 10:38 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-38