Bone morphogenetic protein target gene expression in differentially regulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 and mechanical loading. (a) hFOBs were seeded on collagen scaffolds and subjected for 24 hours to BMP2 stimulation, mechanical loading or a combination of both. Cell morphology was visualized by actin staining (red), cell nuclei were counterstained by DAPI (blue) and collagen matrix is shown in green. Scale bars, 100 μm. (b and c) hFOBs were seeded on collagen scaffolds and subjected for 24 hours to BMP2 stimulation, mechanical loading or a combination of both. Gene expression was analysed by qRT-PCR. Bar charts summarize three independent experiments and depict means ± SEM; #P ≤0.1, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.005. BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; DAPI: 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; hFOB: human fetal osteoblast; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; SEM: standard error of the mean.
Kopf et al. BMC Biology 2012 10:37 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-37