Table 2

Individual compositional and community contextual factors associated with sexual behaviour among Nigerian women identified by multivariable multilevel logistic regression

Empty model

Model with individual variables

Model with individual and community variables


Model 1

Model 2

Model 3


OR (95% CI)

OR (95% CI)

OR (95% CI)


Individual variables

Age groups

15 – 24

reference

reference

25 – 34

0.57 (0.43, 0.77)***

0.59 (0.44, 0.79)***

> 35

0.35 (0.24, 0.53)***

0.36 (0.24, 0.54)***

Level of education

No school

reference

reference

Primary

0.97 (0.64, 1.48)

0.88 (0.57, 1.36)

Secondary/higher

1.63 (1.06, 2.50)*

1.53 (0.99, 2.38)

Wealth index

Low

1.83 (1.14, 2.94)*

1.95 (1.08, 3.50)*

Middle

1.51 (1.07, 2.12)*

1.69 (1.14, 2.51)**

High

reference

reference

Past alcohol use (days)

No

reference

reference

1

2.61 (1.35, 5.06)**

2.70 (1.41, 5.17)**

2

4.69 (2.27, 9.69)***

4.42 (2.14, 9.13)***

3+

3.83 (2.49, 5.89)***

3.47 (2.25, 5.34)***

Marital status

Never married

reference

reference

Currently married

0.05 (0.01, 0.09)***

0.05 (0.01, 0.09)***

Formerly married

0.16 (0.10, 0.23)***

0.15 (0.10, 0.23)***

Religion

Christian

reference

reference

Muslim

0.58 (0.41, 0.83)**

0.72 (0.49, 1.07)

Others

0.54 (0.19, 1.51)

0.52 (0.19, 1.46)

Community covariates

Community economic status

Low

0.90 (0.53, 0.97)*

Middle

0.73 (0.48, 0.87)**

High

reference

Place of residence

Rural

1.01 (0.71, 1.44)

Urban

reference

Region

North central

reference

North East

1.08 (0.63, 1.83)

North west

0.44 (0.24, 0.81)*

South East

0.71 (0.44, 1.17)

South south

1.56 (0.97, 2.51)

South west

0.76 (0.47, 1.24)

Intercept

0.10 (0.09, 0.12)***

2.12 (1.22, 3.71)**

2.40 (1.11, 5.17)*

Random effects

Community random variance (SE)

1.51 (0.20)***

0.51 (0.14)***

0.39 (0.13)**

Variance partition coefficient (%)

31.4

13.4

10.5

Explained variance (%)

reference

66.3

74.3

Model fit statistics

DIC

4366

2050

2044


Abbreviations: OR – Odds ratio, CI – Confidence interval, SE – Standard error, DIC – Deviance information criterion

*p < .05, **p < .01, and ***p < .001

Uthman and Kongnyuy BMC International Health and Human Rights 2008 8:9   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-8-9

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