Table 1

Outline of the ten Participatory Action Group meetings for widows of IDUs



Expected Outcome

Data Collection


Introduction to the PAG process

• Introductory activity

• Developing ground rules

• Identifying members' expectations

• Activity to highlight individual strengths and skills

• Administering baseline questionnaires

• Promote understanding of the purpose of the intervention

• Establish ground rules and expectations

• Highlight focus on value of group process and strength based approach

• Identify participants' skills and strengths and how these skills might be used to develop strategies to address future challenges.

• Baseline questionnaires:


- GHQ12

- Health Risk Questionnaire

• Meeting summary report


Concepts and determinants of mental health

• Conducting FGD 1: Concepts and determinants of mental health for widows of IDUs

• Naming the group

• Finishing with a fun activity

• Learn about the participants perspectives on mental health and well-being

• Enhance group cohesion

• End session with sense of enjoyment

• FGD transcripts

• Meeting summary report


What is mental health?

• Energising activity

• Conducting a facilitator-led group discussion on mental health and illness

• Mapping exercise – how to promote mental health of widows of IDUs

• Free discussion time

• Develop awareness of mental health and illness

• Create understanding of factors that promote mental health

• Meeting summary report


Positive futures and support from family, friends and community – a focus on social inclusion

• Energizing activity

• Envisioning a positive future activity

• Brain-storming activity on promoting support from family and friends

• Free discussion time

• Participants to identify factors that contribute to a positive future for individuals and the group

• Introduce concept of social inclusion

• Develop understanding of connection between social inclusion and mental health

• Develop ideas to promote support from family, friends and community

• Meeting summary report


A focus on stigma and discrimination

• Energizing activity

• Brain-storming activity on stigma and discrimination

• Teaching relaxation techniques

• Identify common sources of stigma and discrimination

• Develop ideas to address stigma and discrimination

• Develop understanding of the connection between stigma and discrimination and mental health

• Participants to gain skills in coping with stressful situations and techniques to relax

• Meeting summary report


A focus on access to economic resources

• Energizing activity

• Conducting small group activities: reading 2 stories based on women and income generation. Discuss lessons learnt and develop group and individual ideas for income generation

• Activity to identify group priority areas for income generation

• Additional information provided for research officers and facilitators on income generation

• Free discussion time

• Identify relationship between access to economic resources and mental health

• Develop understanding of and ideas for income generation for groups and individuals

• Encourage solutions that are not dependent on external funding

• Identify group priority areas for income generation for further development next sessions

• Meeting summary report


Development of action plans

• Conducting a discussion about the nature and benefits of the action planning process for groups and individuals

• Develop vision and mission statements for action plan

• Discussion of strategies for achieving action plans

• Create understanding of benefits of action plan

• Develop group ideas on how to promote mental health

• Develop capacity of groups to take action to improve their own mental health

• Encourage sustainability of group process

• Meeting summary report


Most Significant Change and action plan development

• Collection of stories for MSC

• Further development of action plans

• Free discussion time

• Learn about the impact of the intervention from the participants perspectives

• Increase capacity of groups to take action to improve their own mental health

• MSC stories

• Meeting summary report


Mental health and HIV

• Conducting FGD 2: links between mental health and HIV

• Feedback on MSC story selection process

• Learn about participants perspectives on links between mental health and HIV

• Develop awareness of relationship between poor mental health and engagement in HIV risk behaviours

• Highlight MSC stories selected as significant by participants and compare with those selected by NGOs

• FGD transcripts

• Meeting summary report


Bringing it all together

• Finalising action plans

• Administering post intervention questionnaires

• Celebration

• Capacity to take action plan forward

• Highlight achievement of groups

• Post intervention questionnaires:



-Health Risk Questionnaire

• Meeting summary report

Devine et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2007 7:3   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-7-3

Open Data