Table 1

Diseases that are chronic or associated with chronic conditions whose complications or end-stage outcomes require long-term medical intervention by the formal health sector services.

Disease or condition

Complications or end-stage outcomes requiring formal health sector intervention

Chronic non-infectious diseases


Stroke; cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure; kidney failure


Kidney failure requiring transplantation or dialysis; chronic infection (foot ulcer, osteomyelitis); acute recurrent infections (urinary tract infection, bacteremia, sepsis, pneumonia); blindness; sexual dysfunction


Respiratory infection, respiratory failure

Ignored injuries (intentional or unintentional)

Chronic infection (osteomyelitis, non-healing wounds); limb deformity affecting ambulation, manual dexterity; long-term or permanent brain injury

Mental illnesses

Consequences of attempted suicide or homicide; violence; intractable behavior; restricted self-care

Reproductive health problems

Sterility; unwanted pregnancy; peripartum complications; congenital complications of infection (toxoplasmosis, CMV)

Chronic infectious diseases

Tuberculosis, latent TB infection

Late-stage TB; Multidrug resistant TB

Hepatitis B, C

Liver cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma

HIV infection

AIDS; opportunistic diseases

Acute infectious disease with chronic outcomes

Sexually-transmitted infection

Reproductive diseases; AIDS

Skin lesion and superinfection

Bacterial superinfection; kidney failure due to post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

Untreated bacterial pharyngitis; acute rheumatic fever

Post-streptococcal rheumatic heart disease requiring valve replacement

Behavior and habits

Tobacco use

Cardiovascular diseases, cancer

Alcohol abuse

Liver failure, cirrhosis, unintentional injuries

Illicit drug use

HIV/AIDS; hepatitis B, C; endocarditis, unintentional injuries

Riley et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2007 7:2   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-7-2

Open Data