Table 3

Factors associated with out-of-pocket health expenditure among older participants (>60yrs) (n = 1018)
Explanatory variables Bivariate statisticsa Multivariate statisticsb
β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value
Age in years +0.01 (−0.02; +0.04) 0.64 −0.01 (−0.04; +0.02) 0.42
Female gender −0.35 (−0.90; +0.19) 0.20 −0.37 (−0.89, +0.16) 0.16
Lack of formal education −0.69 (−1.23; −0.16) 0.01 −0.48 (−0.96, +0.01) 0.05
Widowhood −0.13 (−0.68; +0.42) 0.63 −0.26 (−0.73; +0.22) 0.28
Worked as manual laborer in the past −0.73 (−1.31; −0.15) 0.01 −0.29 (−0.90; +0.30) 0.33
Asset Indexc +0.03 (−0.04; +0.09) 0.39 +0.06 (−0.01; +0.12) 0.08
BMI more than 30 (kg/m2) +0.87 (+0.26; +1.49) 0.005 +0.62 (−0.04; +1.28) 0.06
Presence of blindness/visual defect +0.85 (+0.22; +1.49) 0.009 +1.03 (+0.29; +1.77) 0.01
Presence of hearing defect −0.61 (−1.64; +0.43) 0.25 −0.24 (−1.35; +0.86) 0.66
Presence of limb defect +0.11 (−0.81; +1.04) 0.81 −0.14 (−1.04; +0.75) 0.75
Presence of psychiatric morbidity −1.16 (−2.60; +0.27) 0.11 −0.98 (−2.56; +0.60) 0.22
Presence of functional disability +1.05 (+0.53; +1.57) <0.001 +0.70 (+0.14; +1.26) 0.01
Traditional healer visits +1.67 (+0.69; +2.65) <0.001 +1.43 (+0.66; +2.20) <0.001

aSurvey generalized linear regression models with log link function using out-of-pocket health expenditure (in Tanzanian Schilling) as the dependent variable for older participants aged above 60years; bAdjusted for all bivariate significant variables with out-of-pocket health expenditure (in Tanzanian Schilling) as the dependent variable ; cAsset Index constructed using Principal Component Analysis. BMI = Body Mass Index.

Brinda et al.

Brinda et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:5   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-14-5

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