Table 2

Factors associated with out-of-pocket health expenditure among adult participants (18yrs-59yrs) (n = 7279)
Explanatory variables Bivariate statisticsa Multivariate statisticsb
β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value
Age in years +0.02 (+0.01; +0.04) <0.001 +0.03 (+0.02; +0.05) <0.001
Female gender +0.42 (+0.15; +0.68) 0.002 +0.60 (+0.34; +0.86) <0.001
Lack of formal education −0.46 (−0.80; −0.12) 0.007 −0.33 (−0.72; +0.06 0.10
Widowhood +0.14 (−0.29; +0.58) 0.51 −0.29 (−0.69; +0.09) 0.13
Working as manual laborer −0.64 (−0.91; −0.37) <0.001 −0.62 (−0.86; −0.39) <0.001
Asset Indexc +0.03 (−0.02; +0.07) 0.26 +0.02 (−0.02; +0.06) 0.27
BMI more than 30 (kg/m2) +0.99 (+0.42; +1.55) <0.001 +0.55 (−0.08; +1.18) 0.09
Presence of blindness/visual defect +0.01 (−0.51; +0.53) 0.96 −0.12 (−0.74; +0.51) 0.71
Presence of hearing defect +1.25 (−0.20; +2.69) 0.09 +1.96 (+0.24; +3.68) 0.02
Presence of limb defect +0.93 (+0.36; +1.50) <0.001 +0.51 (−0.37; +1.39) 0.25
Presence of psychiatric morbidity −0.62 (−1.72; +0.48) 0.27 +0.41 (−1.18, +1.98) 0.61
Presence of functional disability +1.77 (+1.28; +2.25) <0.001 +1.08 (+0.56; +1.61) <0.001
Traditional healer visits +1.66 (+1.16; +2.16) <0.001 +1.47 (+1.23; +1.81) <0.001

aSurvey generalized linear regression models with log link function using out-of-pocket health expenditure (in Tanzanian Schilling) as the dependent variable for adult participants aged between 18 and 59 years; bAdjusted for all bivariate significant variables with out-of-pocket health expenditure (in Tanzanian Schilling) as the dependent variable; cAsset Index constructed using Principal Component Analysis. BMI = Body Mass Index.

Brinda et al.

Brinda et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2014 14:5   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-14-5

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