Table 3

Bivariate analysis of selected dependent and independent variables
Independent variables Perception of NHIS service provision
Wealth quintile Males (n = 1422) Females (n = 2046)
Poorest (ref) 1.00 1.00
Poorer .971 (.220) .998 (.177)
Middle .692 (.168) .768 (.123)*
Richer .560 (.122)*** .746 (.121)*
Richest .450 (.096)*** .764 (.124)*
Education
No Education 1.00 1.00
Primary Education 1.01 (.229) .868 (.132)
Secondary/Higher education .765 (.133) .721 (.092)***
Marital Status
Never married 1.00 1.00
Currently married .976 (.106) 1.15 (.111)
Formerly married .598 (.176)* .890 (.153)
Age 1.01 (.003) .999 (.004)
Religious affiliation
Christians 1.00 1.00
Muslims 1.69 (.293)*** 1.01 (.157)
Traditionalists 1.05 (.255) 1.81 (.563)**
No religion 1.03 (.325) 1.03 (.328)
Ethnicity
Akans 1.00 1.00
Ga Dangbe 1.32 (.409) .583 (.125)***
Ewe 1.04 (.212) .685 (.124)**
Northern 1.74 (.255)*** 1.10 (.145)
Other 1.03 (.378) .540 (.145)**
Rural–urban residence
Urban 1.00 1.00
Rural 1.48 (.206)*** 1.24 (.155)*
Region of residence
Southern Ghana 1.00 1.00
Northern Ghana 1.68 (.272)*** 1.30 (.185)*

Note: ***p < .01; **p < .05;*p < .1.

Odds ratios are adjusted for clustering and robust standard errors are presented in brackets. Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions are classified as ‘Northern Ghana’, while Greater Accra, Central, Western, Brong Ahafo, Volta, Eastern and Ashanti regions are grouped as ‘Southern Ghana’.

Dixon et al.

Dixon et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:35   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-13-35

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