Table 3

Median (P25, P75) blood indices of nutrient status in male prisoners and guards (all tests undertaken with serum unless otherwise stated)
Prisoners (n=139a) Guards (n=9a) P Cut-offb Prisoners < or > cut-off n (%)
Retinol (μmol/L) 0.73 (0.40, 1.21) 1.36 (0.96, 1.67) 0.016 <1.05 marginal 90 (65)
<0.70 deficient 63 (46)
ß-Carotene (μmol/L) <0.06 (<0.06, 0.09) 0.25 (0.15, 0.36) 0.000
α-Tocopherol (μmol/L) 15.5 (12.5, 18.3) 23.2 (20.2, 27.0) 0.002 <11.6 deficienct 25 (18)
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.4 (3.8, 5.1) 5.5 (4.6, 7.0ß) 0.016 >5.2 high 27 (20) c
α-Tocopherol: total cholesterol ratio (μmol/ mmol) 3.43 (2.96, 3.81) 3.67 (4.04, 5.09) 0.016 <2.2 inadequate 0 (0)
Lutein (μmol/L) 1.58 (1.13, 2.40) 5.48 (4.34, 6.91) 0.002
Plasma vitamin C (μmol/L) 6.3 (1.0, 19.3) 48.5 (17.2, 59.4) 0.002 <11.4 deficienct 87 (64)
Red cell thiamin pyrophosphate (nmol/L) 258 (215, 307) 167 (133, 200) 0.016 <140 risk of suboptimal status 1 (1)
Plasma riboflavin (nmol/L) 221 (164, 282) 333 (255, 377) 0.013 <155 deficienct 25 (18)
Plasma folate (nmol/L) 2.0 (1.35, 2.6) 2.8 (1.6, 4.0) 0.246 <6.8 negative balance 134 (98)
Red blood cell folate (nmol/L) 270 (180, 348) 380 (262, 492) 0.085 0.168 <363 depletion 105 (80)
<227 anemia 46 (35)
Vitamin B12 (pmol/L) 465 (382, 564) 340 (289, 440) 0.016 < 130 risk of deficiency 0 (0)
Holotranscobalamin II (pmol/L) 76 (62.5, 93) 64 (53, 82.5) 0.302 <23 deficienct 0 (0)
Plasma homocysteine (μmol/L) 36 (18, 58) 16 (10, 56) 0.388 >15 moderate hhcy 108 (79)c
>25 intermediate 92 (68)c
50-500 severe 48 (35) c
Selenium (μmol/L) 1.59 (1.48, 1.75) 1.55 (1.49, 1.88) 0.333 <1.27 inhibited GSHPx activity 0 (0)
Zinc (μmol/L) 9.9 (8.8, 11.1) 10.2 (9.0, 10.8) 0.974 <10.7 90 (65.7)
Ferritin (μg/L) 73 (40, 120) 90 (77, 141) 0.2063 <15 depleted stores 10 (7.6)
α-1 acid glycoprotein (mg/dL) 64 (54, 73) 56 (55, 70) 0.4885 >120 subclinical infection 1 (0.76)

a Not all data are complete.

b Cut-offs used to define risk of micronutrient deficiencies were obtained from the following sources: serum retinol [24]; serum vitamin C [25]; serum α-tocopherol [26]; serum α-tocopherol: total cholesterol ratio [25]; red cell thiamin [27]; serum vitamin B12[28]; serum holotranscobalamin II [26]; plasma FAD (Canterbury Laboratories), haematocrit [29], plasma folate [30]; plasma homocysteine [31]; serum selenium [32]; total serum cholesterol [33]; serum iron [21]; serum zinc [34]; serum α-1 acid glycoprotein [35].

c n(%) above cut-off.

* Significant P-value p<0.05.

Gould et al.

Gould et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:21   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-13-21

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