Table 4

Results of the multilevel analysis by predictors of skilled maternity care, North Gondar, 2012
Predictors n Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)
Level-1predictor variables (Individual and household characteristics) ANC Delivery care PNC
Birth order 1 335 1 1 1
2-3 657 0.75 (0.53, 1.07) 0.60 (0.40, 0.90) 0.98 (0.56, 1.71)
4-5 439 0.66 (0.44, 0.99) 0.51 (0.32, 0.85) 0.58 (0.28, 1.20)
6+ 237 0.79 (0.50, 1.25) 0.55 (0.31, 0.96) 0.60 (0.26,1.38)
Mother's education No education 1183 1 1 1
Primary 327 1.09 (0.80, 1.50) 1.17 (0.79, 1.72) 1.31 (0.76, 2.24)
Secondary and above 158 1.68 (1.08, 2.60) 1.94 (1.21, 3.10) 1.72 (0.86, 3.47)
Husband education No education 1057 1 1 1
Primary 430 1.34 (0.98, 1.82) 0.83 (0.56, 1.22) 0.83 (0.49, 1.39)
Secondary and above 181 1.22 (0.77, 1.94) 1.27 (0.77, 2.11) 0.85 (0.43, 1.70)
Wealth quintile Lowest 331 1 1 1
Second 340 1.02 (0.69,1.51) 1.08 (0.66, 1.78) 0.97 (0.44, 2.14)
Middle 306 1.14 (0.75, 1.72) 1.24 (0.74, 2.08) 2.08 (1.01, 4.28)
Fourth 357 1.03 (0.68, 1.56) 1.51 (0.92, 2.46) 1.35 (0.63, 2.86)
Highest 334 0.83 (0.54, 1.27) 1.21 (0.71, 2.05) 1.44 (0.67, 3.13)
Awareness on risk of pregnancy No 522 1 1 1
Yes 1146 1.35 (0.96, 1.89) 1.10 (0.82, 1.75) 1.52 (0.79, 2.93)
Health professionals preferred for the care No 713 1 1 1
Yes 955 1.64 (1.14, 2.36) 2.29 (1.50, 3.51) 2.45 (1.31, 4.60)
Awareness on places to get skilled provider No 341 1 1 1
Yes 1327 1.63 (1.07, 2.49) 2.83 (1.54, 5.20) 1.48 (0.64, 3.42)
Pregnancy wontedness Wanted/mistimed 1511 1 1 1
Unwanted 157 0.79 (0.51, 1.22) 0.59 (0.34, 1.03) 0.67 (0.31, 1.42)
ANC in previous pregnancy No 957 1 1 1
Yes 711 3.39 (1.98, 5.80) 1.80 (1.31, 2.49) 1.92 (1.20, 3.08)
Skilled ANC for this pregnancy No 1130 1 1
Yes 538 1.90 (1.37, 2.63) 0.76 (0.48, 1.20)
Level 2 predictor variables
Communal (kebele) characteristics
Main source of income Farming 1214 1 1 1
Mixed 454 1.35 (0.47, 3.88) 1.64 (1.18, 2.28) 1.54 (1.03, 2.30)
Self sustained No 445 1 1 1
Yes 1223 1.29 (0.21, 8.09)
Average distance to the nearest health center 0.83 (0.46, 1.48) 0.84 (0.69, 1.03) 0.80 (0.63, 1.02)
Health facility characteristics
Signal functions One or more missed 583 1 1 1
All present 1085 1.14 (0.24, 5.51) 1.96 (1.13, 3.40) 1.16 (0.58, 2.35)
Availability of obstetric guidelines No 900 1
Yes 768 1.13 (0.59, 2.18)
Payment requirements during delivery No 1252 1
Yes 416 0.53 (0.32, 0.88)
Overall infrastructure Not satisfactory 1153 1 1 1
Satisfactory 515 1.64 (0.39,6.92) 0.98 (0.64, 1.51) 1.51(0.74, 3.10)
Basic equipments Not satisfactory 878 1
Satisfactory 790 1.12 (0.73, 1.72)
Random part
Var (ANC in previous preg) 0.62 (0.22, 1.80) - -
Var (Preference of H. professionals for the care) 0.07 (0.14, 4.05) - -
Var(cons) i.e. level-2 variance 0.76 (0 .41, 2.21) 5.64e-19 2.13e-18
Rho - Intra-class correlation 0.19 Nearly 0 Nearly 0
Deviance (G2) 1652 1167 670

Worku et al.

Worku et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:20   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-13-20

Open Data