Table 1

Description and measurement of variables included in the models, North Gondar, 2012
Variables Descriptions Measurements
Dependent variables Women who received ANC at least once from a skilled provider, delivery attended by a skilled provider and Women who received PNC at least once from a skilled provider For each indicator, ‘Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ otherwise as ‘0’
ANC, Birth attendance and PNC by a skilled provider (three dependent variables)
Level-1 predictor variables Individual and household characteristics
Birth order Birth order of women’s most recent birth (index birth) It is divided in to four categories: first birth, 2nd- 3rd, 4th-5th and above 5th
Maternal and husband educational status Highest level of education attained by the respondent (mother) and her husband For each variable, it is categorized in to three: illiterate, primary and secondary and above secondary
Wealth quintile Household wealth status is computed by principal component analysis from ten variables (presence of own farmland, own toilet facility, bank account, mobile phone, electricity, roof of house with corrugated iron sheet, number of cows/oxen, horses/ mules/donkeys goats/sheep and chicken) The wealth status is categorized in to five groups and ranked from poorest to wealthiest quintile.
Awareness on risk of pregnancy Awareness of women on risk of pregnancy When women mentioned at least one major risk factor, the value is ‘1’ if not it is ‘0’
Health professionals preferred by women Women prefer health professionals for their maternity care Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Awareness on places to get skilled providers Women know appropriate health facilities to get skilled providers When appropriate facilities are known, the value is ‘1’ if not it is ‘0’.
Pregnancy wontedness Pregnancy wanted or not Pregnancy wanted or miss-timed coded as ‘0’ and unwanted coded as ‘1’
ANC in previous pregnancy Presence of at least one ANC visit in previous pregnancies Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Agreed on postnatal check up Women agreed on the need of postnatal check up after normal delivery When women agreed, the value is ‘1’ if not it is ‘0’.
Level-2 predictor variables Communal (kebele) characteristics
Source of income The kebele population main source of income It is categorized in to two: Farming and mixed (farming and trading)
Self sustained Presence of enough production for feeding the population Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Average distance Average distance (in Kilometer) of villages in each kebele to the nearest health center Supervisors estimated the distances of villages from health centers. The average values were calculated and rounded to one decimal place.
Health facility characteristics
Presence of signal functions Presence of all the six signal functions in basic essential obstetric care facilities (health centers) If all signal functions are present, the value is labeled as ‘1’ if one or more are missing, the value is labeled as ‘0’
Duty service Maternity service for 24 hrs and 7 days Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Availability of obstetric guidelines Obstetric guidelines available for reference by staff at all times Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Payment requirements Maternity clients required to purchase/ provide supplies/drugs at time of delivery Yes’ responses are coded as ‘1’ and no responses as ‘0’.
Overall infrastructure Infrastructures of the health facility (examination and delivery rooms, refrigerator, water source, power supply, toilet facilities, drainage system…) Based on records of observation, the infrastructure of the health facility is categorized as not satisfactory (1) and satisfactory (2).
Basic equipments Presence of basic equipments (BP apparatus, stethoscope, fetal stethoscope, adult and baby weighing scales, delivery and episiotomy sets, sterilizers…) Based on records of observation, the variable is categorized as not satisfactory (1) and satisfactory (2).

Worku et al.

Worku et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2013 13:20   doi:10.1186/1472-698X-13-20

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