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This article is part of the supplement: Contextualising rights: the lived experience of sexual and reproductive health rights

Open Access Highly Accessed Research

Operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: constraints, dilemmas and strategies

Rose Ndakala Oronje12*, Joanna Crichton3, Sally Theobald4, Nana Oye Lithur5 and Latifat Ibisomi6

Author Affiliations

1 Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9RE, UK

2 African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP), Royal Offices, Mogotio Road off Chiromo Lane, Westlands, Nairobi, Kenya

3 School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, 39 Whatley Road, Bristol, BS8 2PS, UK

4 Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK

5 INDEPTH Network, 11 Mensah Wood Street, East Legon, Accra, Ghana

6 Demography and Population Studies Programme, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa

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BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011, 11(Suppl 3):S8  doi:10.1186/1472-698X-11-S3-S8

Published: 16 December 2011

Abstract

Background

The continued poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa highlight the difficulties in reforming policies and laws, and implementing effective programmes. This paper uses one international and two national case studies to reflect on the challenges, dilemmas and strategies used in operationalising sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) in different African contexts.

Methods

The international case study focuses on the progress made by African countries in implementing the African Union’s Maputo Plan of Action (for the Operationalisation of the Continental Policy Framework for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights) and the experiences of state and non-state stakeholders in this process. The case was developed from an evaluation report of the progress made by nine African countries in implementing the Plan of Action, qualitative interviews exploring stakeholders’ experiences and perceptions of the operationalisation of the plan (carried out as part of the evaluation) in Botswana and Nigeria, and authors’ reflections. The first national case study explores the processes involved in influencing Ghana’s Domestic Violence Act passed in 2007; developed from a review of scientific papers and organisational publications on the processes involved in influencing the Act, qualitative interview data and authors’ reflections. The second national case study examines the experiences with introducing the 2006 Sexual Offences Act in Kenya, and it is developed from organisational publications on the processes of enacting the Act and a review of media reports on the debates and passing of the Act.

Results

Based on the three cases, we argue that prohibitive laws and governments’ reluctance to institute and implement comprehensive rights approaches to SRH, lack of political leadership and commitment to funding SRHR policies and programmes, and dominant negative cultural framing of women’s issues present the major obstacles to operationalising SRH rights. Analysis of successes points to the strategies for tackling these challenges, which include forming and working through strategic coalitions, employing strategic framing of SRHR issues to counter opposition and gain support, collaborating with government, and employing strategic opportunism.

Conclusion

The strategies identified show future pathways through which challenges to the realisation of SRHR in Africa can be tackled.