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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Sociocultural and epidemiological aspects of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

Carolyn M Audet12*, Janeen Burlison1, Troy D Moon134, Mohsin Sidat5, Alfredo E Vergara12 and Sten H Vermund13

Author affiliations

1 Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37203 USA

2 Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37232 USA

3 Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, 37232 USA

4 Friends in Global Health, Maputo and Quelimane, Mozambique

5 Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique

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Citation and License

BMC International Health and Human Rights 2010, 10:15  doi:10.1186/1472-698X-10-15

Published: 8 June 2010

Abstract

Background

A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Methods

To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholarâ„¢, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource) using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'.

Results

UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence.

Conclusions

Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma.