Table 1

Patient Education Strategies Related to Warfarin and Anticoagulation

Citation Location Study Design

Stated Goal

Group Size

Personnel involved


Menendez-Jandula et al13 2005 Barcelona, Spain RCT

To prove the value of self-management on INR control and clinical outcomes

5–8 patients and option of having family member present

Specially trained nurse

2 sessions of 2 hours on consecutive days Based on German model

Koertke et al14 20051 Westphalia, Germany Program description

To describe the principles of a training course to learn INR self-management

Not more than 5 patients

Not stated

Welcome period Two phase (hospital, 6 months later) Average duration 3–4 hours (1.5 for theoretical and 1.5 for device handling)

Voller et al15 20041 Westphalia, Germany Program description

To evaluate the effects of a training program on patient knowledge

2–5 patients

Not stated

Two half day sessions 2–7 days apart. Patient logbook

Khan et al16 2004 Newcastle, U.K. RCT

To prove the value of education and self-monitoring on INR control and quality of life

2–3 patients

Led by physician

1 two hour educational session

Gadisseur et al17 2003 Leiden, Netherlands RCT

To examine effects of self-management on quality of life

4–5 patients

Specialized teams of physicians and nurses

3 weekly sessions of 90–120 minutes

Singla et al18 2003 Philadelphia, U.S. Cohort Survey

To examine effects of group education on knowledge

11 persons

Pharmacist or nurse

1 one hour session

Amruso19 2003 Tampa, U.S. Program description

To examine effects of group education on knowledge


Chain pharmacy pharmacist

Ongoing monthly appointments

Beyth et al20 2000 San Francisco, U.S. RCT

To prove the value of self-management


Lay educator

Specifically formatted workbook. Coaching on communication skills. Self monitoring

Morsdorf et al21 1999 Saarland, Germany Program description

To examine the efficiency of patient training for self-management

4–6 patients

Single MD\Single instructor

4 theoretical and 2–6 practical sessions Video assisted demonstrations

Foss et al22 1999 Denver, U.S. Program description

To describe the efficiencies of a high-volume anticoagulation clinic

Not more than 6 patients

Pharm D

1 hour slide presentation

Sawicki et al23 1999 Dusseldorf, Germany RCT

To prove effect of self management on accuracy of control and quality of life

3–6 patients

Physicians and nurses

3 consecutive weekly teaching sessions of 60 to 90 minutes in duration

Stone et al24 1989 Worcester, U.S. RCT

To examine the effect of videotape on knowledge



15 minute videotape compared with 25 minute nurse lecture

Scalley et al25 1979 San Antonio, U.S. Program description

To develop a program for patient education


Pharmacist or nurse

Average 30 minutes. Slide presentation and booklet. Checklist of learning objectives placed in patient's chart

Wofford et al. BMC Health Services Research 2008 8:40   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-40

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