Table 5

Factors associated with a high burden of travel for medical/dental care, separate logistic regression analyses, NHTS 2001.

Travel of 30 miles or more a

Travel of 30 minutes or more b


OR

95% CI

OR

95% CI


Characteristics of Traveler


Residence

Rural

2.67**

1.39, 5.15

1.80*

1.09, 2.99

Urban (ref)

---

---

---

---


Race

White (ref)

---

---

---

---

Black

1.03

0.53, 2.02

3.04***

2.00, 4.62

Hispanic

2.45

0.51, 11.77

1.23

0.56, 2.69

Other

1.90

0.69, 5.19

1.64*

1.07, 2.51


Age

0~25

1.32

0.73, 2.36

0.95

0.70, 1.31

26~50 (ref)

---

---

---

---

51~75

1.31

0.73, 2.35

1.05

0.79, 1.40

76~100

1.59

0.68, 3.69

1.18

0.77, 1.83


Sex

Male (ref)

---

---

---

---

Female

1.08

0.80, 1.46

0.83

0.68, 1.00


Education

High School or Lower

1.10

0.59, 2.04

0.94

0.71, 1.24

College (ref)

---

---

---

---

Graduate School

0.63

0.25, 1.61

0.95

0.60, 1.51

Not Ascertained

0.65

0.15, 2.78

0.63

0.32, 1.27


Medical Condition that Limits Driving

Yes (ref)

---

---

---

---

No

0.64

0.39, 1.04

0.82

0.60, 1.11


Occupation of Head of Household

Sales or Service (ref)

---

---

---

---

Clerical or Administrative Support

0.52

0.19, 1.39

1.11

0.71, 1.71

Manufacturing, Construction, Maintenance, or Farming

1.23

0.47, 3.26

0.84

0.49, 1.45

Professional, Managerial or Technical

1.02

0.48, 2.17

1.25

0.85, 1.86

Other

0.84

0.46, 1.55

1.20

0.85, 1.70


Household Income

< $20,000 (ref)

---

---

---

---

>$20,000 and < $44,999

1.18

0.54, 2.61

0.97

0.65, 1.45

>$45,000 and < $69,999

0.90

0.43, 1.87

0.78

0.52, 1.16

>$70,000

1.17

0.51, 2.69

0.68

0.42, 1.09

Not Ascertained

0.30

0.09, 0.93

0.89

0.53, 1.51


Family Size

< = 2 Family Members (ref)

---

---

---

---

3 Family Members

0.98

0.46, 2.10

0.96

0.64, 1.45

4 Family Members

0.80

0.39, 1.63

1.02

0.67, 1.54

>4 Family Members

1.29

0.62, 2.68

1.44

0.96, 2.18


Characteristics of Trip


Mode of Travel

Personal Vehicle (ref)

---

---

---

---

Public/Walk/Other

0.40

0.13, 1.26

2.22***

1.42, 3.46


Day of Week

Business Day (Monday- Friday) (ref)

---

---

---

---

Weekend (Saturday-Sunday)

1.43

0.88, 2.34

1.16

0.85, 1.59


Time of Day

Midnight – 8 am

2.54*

1.12, 5.78

1.86*

1.12, 3.10

Business Hours (8 am – 5 pm) (ref)

---

---

---

---

5 pm – midnight

0.20***

0.09, 0.43

0.71

0.31, 1.61


Characteristics of Community


Traffic Condition

Yes (ref)

---

---

---

---

No

0.83

0.58, 1.20

0.81

0.64, 1.02


Region

Northeast (ref)

---

---

---

---

South

0.98

0.47, 2.06

1.24

0.87, 1.78

Midwest

1.46

0.76, 2.80

1.38

0.97, 1.95

West

2.11

0.88, 5.05

1.40

0.98, 2.00


Job Density

Low (ref)

---

---

---

---

Median

0.52

0.23, 1.16

0.94

0.58, 1.53

High

0.49

0.20, 1.19

0.86

0.50, 1.46

Very High

0.19**

0.07, 0.52

0.62

0.37, 1.03


a Model Statistics for distance traveled: R2 = 0.0899.

b Model Statistics for time spent in travel: R2 = 0.0817

* p > 0.05. ** p > 0.01. *** p > 0.001.

Probst et al. BMC Health Services Research 2007 7:40   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-40

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