|Accountability relationships in universities and healthcare providers that form core constituent parts of AHSCs and AHSNs|
|Universities: Medical schools||Healthcare providers: Hospitals and GPs|
|Hierarchical||Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS); university.||Department of Health (DH); NHS trusts/FTs; GP practices/CCGs.|
|Legal||Health research legislation and regulatory bodies ; higher education legislation; Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education; undergraduate medical education and research funding grants including the DH’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and contracts with BIS’s higher education and research funding councils, medical research charities, industry partners, and students.||Healthcare legislation and regulatory bodies ; National Audit Office; Care Quality Commission; Monitor (economic regulator); Office of Fair Trading; health research legislation and regulatory bodies ; postgraduate medical education and training contracts with Health Education England and Local Education and Training Boards; health service contracts between commissioners (CCGs and NHS England) and NHS trusts/FTs; national contract between GPs and NHS England; research grants and contracts with NIHR, medical research charities, and industry partners.|
|Professional||General Medical Council, medical royal colleges and faculties; Academy of Medical Sciences; national and international professional associations; research community peers; university research ethics committees.||General Medical Council; medical royal colleges and faculties; NHS medical director; NHS trust/FT medical director; NHS trust/FT clinical governance and risk management peer groups.|
|Political||Parliament; BIS; NHS and industry partners; public involved in research; local and global patient communities.||Parliament, NHS England (and through its mandate, DH); local authorities’ overview and scrutiny committees; patient and public representatives’ Healthwatch; NHS trust/FT non-executive directors; NHS FT governors and members.|
Ovseiko et al.
Ovseiko et al. BMC Health Services Research 2014 14:24 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-24