Table 3

Methods of engagement for each engagement level across the international association for public participation (IAP2) spectrum
Inform Consult Involve Collaborate Empower
Mass Media (commercials, advertisements, mailings) [14,41] Focus group [42] Forums for debate [13] Patient advisory councils/committees [12,24,28,37,38,41,43] Citizen jury [12,14,44]
Website [13] Patient surveys [12,14,23,26,44,45] Health panels [12] Expert patients [12] Consumer managed project/service [32]
Press releases [13] Feedback and complaints (i.e. interviews, comment cards etc.) [26,29] Shadowing patients [12] Charrette [14] Citizen’s panels [12,14,44]
Mail outs [13,14] Story-telling [13,38] Workshops [14,23,43,44] Constituent assembly [14] Consensus conference [14,44]
Fact sheets [1,13,14,26] Social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) [38] Public meetings [23,26] Delphi Process [14] Deliberative polling [14,44,46]
Hotline [14,32] Planning meetings/ Forums [23,26] Retreats [14] Search conference [14]
Displays and exhibitions [38] Suggestion boxes [26,42] Round tables [14] Study circles [14,24]
Presentations [38] Patient diaries [26] Impact assessments [41] Study groups [35,43]
Mystery shopping [26] Ethics committees [41] Sustainable community development [14]
World café [24,26] Think tanks [14]
Town hall meetings [24]
Revolving conversation [24]

Kovacs Burns et al.

Kovacs Burns et al. BMC Health Services Research 2014 14:175   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-175

Open Data