|Elements of the integrated governance models identified in published papers (n = 21)|
|Element||Interventions shown to be effective||n = *[references]|
|1. Joint planning||Joint strategic needs assessment agreed; formalising relationships between stakeholders; joint boards; promotion of a community focus and organisational autonomy; guide for collective decision making; multi-level partnerships; focus on continuum of care with input from providers and users.||18|
|2. Integrated information communication technology||Systems designed to support shared clinical exchange i.e. Shared Electronic Health Record; a tool for systems integration linking clinical processes, outcomes and financial measures.||17|
|3. Change management||Managed locally; committed resources; strategies to manage change and align organisational cultural values; executive and clinical leadership; vision; commitment at meso and micro levels.||17|
|4. Shared clinical priorities||Agreed target areas for redesign; role of multi-disciplinary clinical networks/clinical panels; pathways across the continuum.||16|
|5. Incentives||Incentives are provided to strengthen care co-ordination e.g. pooling multiple funding streams and incentive structures, such as equitable funding distribution; incentives for innovative and development of alternative models.||15|
|6. Population focus||Geographical population health focus.||13|
|7. Measurement – using data as quality improvement tool||Shared population clinical data to use for planning, measurement of utilisation focusing on quality improvement and redesign; collaborative approach to measuring performance provides transparency across organisational boundaries.||12|
|8. Continuing professional development supporting the value of joint working||Inter-professional and inter-organisational learning opportunities provide training to support new way and align cultures; clearly identifying roles and responsibilities and guidelines across the continuum.||11|
|9. Patient/community engagement||Involve patient and community participation by use of patient narratives of experience and wider community engagement.||8|
|10. Innovation||Resources are available and innovative models of care are supported.||7|
*Number of studies reporting the specified element.
Nicholson et al.
Nicholson et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:528 doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-528