Additional file 2.

Adverse drug events were diagnosed only in patients presenting to the emergency department with untoward and unintended symptoms, signs or abnormal laboratory values that arose from appropriate or inappropriate medication use. Events meeting this case definition were categorized according to the taxonomy of drug-related problems [25]. For all events that were categorized as due to “Need to Add Drug/Untreated Indication” or “Failure to Receive a Drug/Noncompliance” a pre-existing diagnosis had to have been documented prior to the emergency department visit. Failure to use a drug in the first place was not considered an adverse drug event. Asymptomatic drug-related problems were not captured. Adverse drug reactions were defined according to the World Health Organization [31].

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Hohl et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:473   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-473