Table 1

Seven healthcare systems background information
Health system Pop (mil) Pop density (per km2)  Urbanisation% Median age Main ethnic groups Income inequality index (GINI coefficient)(b)
England Universal access funded by General Taxation 51.3 [18] 395 [22] 80(a)[16] 40(a)[16] White 92.1%(a)[16] 0.34(a)[18]
Black 2% Indian or
Pakistani 3.1%
Scotland Universal access funded by General Taxation 5.1 [18] 66 [18] Mixed 1.2%
Other 1.6%
New South Wales Universal access funded by federal and state taxation mixed with optional private insurance coverage 7.1 [18] 9 [18] 89 [19] 37 [19] White 92% [16,25] 0.30 [18]
Asian 7%
Aboriginal 2.2%
Netherlands Mandatory social insurance 16 [18] 395 [18] 83 [16] 41 [16] Dutch 80.7% [16] 0.27 [18]
purchased from profit making insurers EU 5%
Indonesian 2.4% Turkish 2.2% Surinamese 2% Moroccan 2% Caribbean 0.8% Other 4.8%
New Zealand Universal access funded by General Taxation 4.3 [18] 16 [18] 86 [16] 37 [16] European 77% Maori 15% [23] 0.34 [18]
Pacific 7%
Asian 10%
Ontario Universal access funded by General Taxation 12.9 [18] 14 [18] 85 [20] 39 [16] 77% Non minority [20] 0.32 [18]
4% Black
14% Asian
2% Aboriginal
Stockholm Universal access funded by general and local taxation 1.9 [18] 299 [18] 95 [21] 39 [17] 9.6% Population foreign citizens, 39% classified as foreign born [17] 0.23 [18]
Foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks

Data Sourced From: (a)United Kingdom estimates, (b)Country estimates.

[16] (Central Intelligence Agency. 2011).

[17] (Statistics Sweden. 2011).

[18] (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2011).

[19] (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2010).

[20] (Statistics Canada. 2009).

[21] (Statistics Sweden. 2010).

[22] (Office for National Statistics 2010).

[23] (New Zealand Ministry of Social Development 2010).

[24] (Statistics Canada. 2007).

[25] (Aboriginal Affairs NSW. 2007).

Penno et al.

Penno et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:470   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-470

Open Data