# Table 4

Results of modeling WTP: objection to pay, inability to pay, and level of positive WTP
Dependent variable Objection to pay Random effect logit Inability to pay Random effect logit WTP level Random effect linear
1= object, unable and object 1= unable, unable and object LN (WTP Positive)
0= unable, WTP>0 0= object, WTP>0
Full model Reduced model Full model Reduced model Full model Reduced model
Coeff. (S.E.) Coeff. (S.E.) Coeff. (S.E.) Coeff. (S.E.) Coeff. (S.E.) Coeff. (S.E.)
Specialization of a physician: 0 = GP 1 = Specialist 0.185 (0.212) −0.689* (0.301) −0.727* (0.286) 0.143* (0.034) 0.138* (0.033)
Quality/access characteristics: 0 = Basic characteristics −4.411* (0.360) −4.681* (0.359) −1.210* (0.316) −1.120* (0.296) 0.366* (0.045) 0.362* (0.045)
1 = Improved characteristics
Age
aged 18-34 −0.086 (0.560) −0.584 (1.082) −0.319 (0.912) 0.132 (0.134)
aged 35-54 ref. ref. ref. ref.
aged 55+ −0.223 (0.591) 2.082* (1.032) 1.633* (0.731) −0.156 (0.143)
Sex
female ref. ref. ref.
male −0.506 (0.459) −1.060 (0.831) 0.051 (0.109)
Place of residence
village ref. ref. ref.
town (to 100)/small city (to 500) −0.894** (0.476) 0.165 (0.771) 0.068 (0.114)
big city (500+) and capital −0.528 (0.581) 1.406 (0.993) 0.001 (0.141)
Education level
primary or no education −0.281 (0.579) 0.354 (0.838) −0.089 (0.145) −0.198 (0.132)
secondary education ref. ref. ref. ref.
higher education or sc. degree −0.117 (0.537) 0.378 (0.928) 0.186 (0.126) 0.220** (0.118)
Health status
absolutely sick to bad 0.278 (0.643) 0.964 (0.897) 0.135 (0.157)
fair ref. ref. ref.
good to perfect 0.318 (0.532) −0.989 (0.927) −0.139 (0.128)
Voluntary insurance policy
no voluntary insurance ref. ref. ref. ref.
has voluntary health insurance −0.751 (0.975) −33.337 (>3x105) 0.535* (0.216) 0.448* (0.208)
Size of the house hold
1 member (alone) ref. ref. ref.
2+ members 0.663 (0.690) 0.193 (1.021) −0.147 (0.168)
Number of children in the household
No children in the household ref. ref. ref.
1+ children in the household 0.616 (0.491) 1.713** (0.956) −0.044 (0.116)
Share of household members who do not earn
<= half of household not working ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
> half of household not working −1.102* (0.488) −1.039* (0.425) 1.748* (0.800) 2.561* (0.685) −0.016 (0.115)
Income (descriptive)
not sufficient ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
meets the need −0.521 (0.493) −0.695 (0.468) −2.402* (0.827) −2.505* (0.697) 0.115 (0.123)
allows saving −0.979 (0.652) −1.633* (0.579) −4.925* (1.408) −5.334* (1.293) 0.059 (0.151)
Experience in visiting and paying
did not visit −0.263 (0.569) 0.684 (1.005) 0.393 (0.881) 0.032 (0.135) 0.009 (0.123)
visited did not pay −0.055 (0.472) 0.886 (0.752) 1.537* (0.701) −0.208** (0.114) −0.219* (0.110)
visited and paid ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Level of income, UAH 0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000) 70.6*(32.2) x10-6 67.3*(26.2)x10-6
Constant term 2.405* (0.893) 2.545* (0.462) −3.931* (1.397) −4.331* (0.812) 3.001* (0.217) 2.945* (0.115)
Residuals' statistics
/lnsig2u 1.968 2.148 2.630 2.703 - -
sigma_u 2.675 2.927 3.725 3.863 0.649 0.644
sigma_e 0.364 0.361
rho 0.685 0.723 0.808 0.819 0.761 0.761
Model fit
Number of obs 989 1150 989 1133 499 513
Wald chi2 150.73 170.43 43.73 49 117.3 115.9
Ll −449.9 Ll −518.8 Ll −260.4 Ll −295.5 R2 w-in 0.229 R2 w-in 0.232
AIC 943.87 AIC 1049.7 AIC 564.8 AIC 612.9 btw 0.145 btw 0.119
BIC 1051.6 BIC 1080 BIC 672.5 BIC 668.3 ov-all 0.146 ov-all 0.123

Significance level: * p< 0.05; ** 0.05≤ p ≤0.10; ref. – reference group.

Danyliv et al.

Danyliv et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:208   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-208