Table 3

Percentage availability of resources for emergency and critical care
Resource All hospitals District/regional hospitals Referral/private hospitals
n = 10 n = 7 n = 3
% % %
1 Infra-structure Triage area for adults 30 0 100
2 Emergency/Resus Room or Area for adults 60 43 100
3 ICU or Area on a general ward for critically ill adults 50 29 100
4 Triage area for children 30* 43 100*
5 Emergency Room/Area for children 50 29 100
6 Paediatric ICU/area for critically ill children 90 86 100
7 Human Resources Nurse always in the ER 100* 100* 100
8 Clinician always in the ER or on-call for ER 100* 100* 100
9 Designated Medical Head of ICU - - 100
10 There is a higher ratio of staff: patients on ICU than in any other ward - - 100
11 Training Any staff trained in adult triage 20 29 0
12 Any staff formally trained in Emergency care of adults 40 29 67
13 Any staff formally trained in Critical Care for adults 20 0 67
14 Any staff trained in paediatric triage 40 43 33
15 Any staff formally trained in Emergency care of children 60 57 67
16 Any staff formally trained in Critical Care for children 80 71 100
17 Drugs IV glucose 100* 100* 100
18 IV crystalloid 100* 100* 100
19 Diazepam 100* 100* 100
20 Paracetamol 100** 100** 100
21 IV penicillin 100 100 100
22 IV Gentamycin 100 100 100
23 IV Quinine 100** 100** 100
24 Adrenaline 100** 100** 100
25 Atropine 88* 83* 100
26 Salbutamol (for inhaler or nebuliser) 66* 50* 100
27 IV/IM opioid 100 100 100
28 Frusemide 100* 100* 100
29 Aminophylline 88* 83* 100
30 Insulin 70 57 100
31 Hydrocortisone 100 100 100
32 Equipment Blood Pressure cuff 100 100 100
33 Stethoscope 100 100 100
34 IV cannulae 100 100 100
35 Bedside blood sugar strips/glucometer 70 71 67
36 Weighing scales 55* 57 50*
37 Suction 100* 100* 100
38 Gloves - clean 100 100 100
39 Thermometer 100* 100 100*
40 Urine Catheter 100 100 100
41 Oral Airway (Guedel) 60 43 100
42 Pulse oximeter 70 57 100
43 Naso-gastric Tubes 100 100 100
44 Oxygen concentrator/cylinder with face masks or nasal prongs and tubing 90 86 100
45 Electricity 24 hours/day 50 29 100
46 Running Water & soap 100 100 100
47 Routines Formal system for categorising new adult patients according to urgency 40 14 100
48 Formal system for prioritising critically ill adults 44* 16* 100
49 Registration/Payment delayed until after triage & emergency treatment of critically ill adults 85*** 80** 100*
50 Nurses do more frequent observations on critically ill adults 83**** 66**** 100
51 Ward rounds are done for critically ill adults at least twice a day 30 0 100
52 Formal system for categorising new paediatric patients according to urgency 57*** 50* 100**
53 Formal system for prioritising critically ill children - 50* -
54 Registration/Payment delayed until after triage & emergency treatment of critically ill children - 100**** -
55 Nurses do more frequent observations on critically ill children 77* 66* 100
56 Ward rounds are done for critically ill children at least twice a day 33* 0* 100
57 ICU admission criteria - - 50*
58 “Track and trigger” system on the wards for finding and referring critically ill patients to the ICU - - 0*
59 Guidelines Triage Guidelines for adults 13** 0** 33
60 Guidelines for resuscitation/emergency care of adults 14*** 0** 50*
61 Guidelines for managing seriously ill adults 20***** 0**** 50*
62 Triage Guidelines for children - 25*** -
63 Resuscitation Guidelines for children - 25*** -
64 Guidelines for managing seriously ill children - 33* -
65 Guidelines for oxygen use 14*** 25*** 0
66 Support Services Lab with facilities to measure Haemoglobin 100 100 100
67 Lab with facilities to measure Blood Glucose 100 100 100
68 Lab with facilities to measure Serum Urea/Creatinine, Sodium and Potassium 90 86 100
69 Chest X-ray facilities 100 100 100
70 System for emergency Blood Transfusion 100 100 100
71 System for making cross-matched blood available within one hour 80 86 67
72 System for testing donor blood for the viruses HIV, Hepatitis B & C 100*** 100** 100*
73 Lab with facilities for microscopy & Bacterial Gram stain 100 100 100
74 Lab with facilities for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivities 80 71 100

Data given as a percentage of the hospitals where each resource was available.

* missing data is shown with one asterix (*) per missing hospital. Where data is missing for all hospitals in a section a dash is shown (-).

ER Emergency Room; ICU Intensive Care Unit; IV Intravenous; IM Intramuscular.

Baker et al.

Baker et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:140   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-140

Open Data