Table 3

Incremental Effects of Cleft Status and Type on Hospitalizations by Age Group

Age group/Cleft Measure

Hospitalization Probability

Hospitalization Days|Days > 0

Total Effect on Hospitalization Days


Age 0-9 years


Cleft Status

0.168****

2.5****

1.05****


(0.003)

(0.17)

(0.02)


[195.1%]

[47.8%]

[233.2%]


{188.0%,202.1%}

{41.6%,54.0%}

{226.3%,241.3%}


Cleft lip

0.099****

1.2****

0.6****


(0.004)

(0.2)

(0.03)


[115.0%]

[22.9%]

[133.2%]


{106.0%,124.1%}

{15.4%,30.4%}

{122.0%,143.9%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.245****

3.37****

1.51****


(0.005)

(0.27)

(0.028)


[284.5%]

[64.4%]

[335.3%]


{273.5%,296.2%}

{54.3%,74.6%}

{324.0%,348.5%}


Cleft palate

0.158****

2.38****

0.99****


(0.006)

(0.31)

(0.03)


[183.5%]

[45.5%]

[219.9%]


{170.3%,197.3%}

{34.0%,56.9%}

{206.3%,234.7%}


Age 10-19 years


Cleft Status

0.103****

1.03****

0.53****


(0.003)

(0.12)

(.01)


[183.6%]

[22.1%]

[202.3%]


{174.0%,193.7%}

{16.8%,27.2%}

{193.3%,212.6%}


Cleft lip

0.043****

0.26

0.21****


(0.004)

(0.21)

(0.02)


[76.6%]

[5.6%]

[80.2%]


{63.1%,89.5%}

{-3.1%,14.3%}

{66.9%,94.3%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.203****

1.43****

1.01****


(0.005)

(0.15)

(0.02)


[361.9%]

[30.6%]

[385.5%]


{344.9%,378.4%}

{24.4%,36.9%}

{368.9%,403.5%}


Cleft palate

0.054****

0.63**

0.28****


(0.004)

(0.28)

(0.02)


[96.3%]

[13.5%]

[106.9%]


{81.1%,111.9%}

{1.6%,25.4%}

{93.9%,123.0%}


Age 20-29 years


Cleft Status

0.038****

0.53***

0.26****


(0.003)

(0.2)

(0.02)


[32.6%]

[9.6%]

[40.4%]


{27.8%,37.1%}

{2.6%,16.7%}

{34.3%,46.1%}


Cleft lip

0.014***

0.35

0.11***


(0.004)

(0.54)

(0.04)


[12.0%]

[6.3%]

[17.1%]


{4.2%,19.0%}

{-13.1%,25.8%}

{4.9%,28.8%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.084****

0.43**

0.5****


(0.005)

(0.17)

(0.03)


[72.0%]

[7.8%]

[77.6%]


{63.2%,80.6%}

{1.7%,14.0%}

{68.7%,85.8%}


Cleft palate

0.015***

0.84**

0.16****


(0.004)

(0.39)

(0.04)


[12.9%]

[15.2%]

[24.8%]


{5.2%,19.7%}

{1.4%,28.9%}

{14.0%,36.6%}


Age 30-39 years


Cleft Status

0.017****

0.51*

0.15****


(0.003)

(0.27)

(0.02)


[15.3%]

[8.7%]

[23.2%]


{10.8%,19.9%}

{-0.5%,17.9%}

{15.7%,29.9%}


Cleft lip

0.008*

0.21

0.07*


(0.004)

(0.41)

(0.04)


[7.2%]

[3.6%]

[10.8%]


{-0.5%,14.5%}

{-10.1%,17.4%}

{-0.6%,20.7%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.038****

0.56

0.27****


(0.005)

(0.44)

(0.04)


[34.3%]

[9.6%]

[41.8%]


{26.4%,43.0%}

{-5.0%,24.3%}

{31.1%,54.0%}


Cleft palate

0.003

0.72

0.09*


(0.004)

(0.54)

(0.05)


[2.7%]

[12.3%]

[13.%]


{-4.7%,10.1%}

{-6.0%,30.6%}

{-2.0%,29.4%}


Age 40-49 years


Cleft Status

0.016****

0.75*

0.19****


(0.003)

(0.42)

(0.03)


[18.8%]

[9.6%]

[28.7%]


{12.6%,25.9%}

{-1.0%,20.3%}

{18.5%,38.1%}


Cleft lip

-0.002

0.58

0.03


(0.004)

(0.71)

(0.06)


[-2.4%]

[7.4%]

[4.5%]


{-12.6%,8.0%}

{-10.3%,25.3%}

{-12.7%,23.0%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.03****

-0.36

0.2****


(0.005)

(0.49)

(0.04)


[35.3%]

[-4.6%]

[30.2%]


{23.3%,46.5%}

{-16.9%,7.7%}

{16.6%,42.6%}


Cleft palate

0.019****

2.51**

0.36****


(0.005)

(1.02)

(0.07)


[22.4%]

[32.2]

[54.4%]


{10.4%,34.6%}

{1.9%,57.9%}

{33.0%,74.6%}


Age 50-59 years


Cleft Status

0.013***

0.31

0.15***


(0.004)

(0.57)

(0.05)


[13.3%]

[3.3%]

[16.3%]


{5.3%,21.9%}

{-8.6%,15.2%}

{5.1%,28.2%}


Cleft lip

-0.001

1.43

0.13


(0.007)

(1.32)

(0.12)


[-1.0%]

[15.2%]

[14.1%]


{-14.5%,12.1%}

{-12.2%,42.5%}

{-12.2%,39.7%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.025****

0.48

0.28***


(0.007)

(0.81)

(0.08)


[25.6%]

[5.1%]

[30.4%]


{11.5%,40.1%}

{-11.7%,21.8}

{12.5%,48.1%}


Cleft palate

0.013*

-1.06

0.02


(0.007)

(0.84)

(0.09)


[13.3%]

[-11.3%]

[2.2%]


{-1.2%,28.0%}

{-28.8%,6.2%}

{-17.8%,21.8%}


Age 60-68 years


Cleft Status

0.002

-0.3

-0.01


(0.009)

(1.06)

(0.14)


[1.6%]

[-2.8%]

[-0.7%]


{-12.0%,15.7%}

{-21.9%,16.5%}

{-20.8%,19.1%}


Cleft lip

-0.022

-2.25

-0.52**


(0.015)

(1.38)

(0.22)


[-17.1%]

[-20.7%]

[-37.1%]


{-39.3%,5.4%}

{-45.6%,4.2%}

{-67.8%,-6.2%}


Cleft lip with palate

0.011

-0.13

0.1


(0.014)

(1.51)

(0.23)


[8.5%]

[-1.2%]

[7.1%]


{-12.2%,29.6%}

{-28.5%,26.0%}

{-24.3%,39.0%}


Cleft palate

0.013

1.04

0.27


(0.019)

(2.38)

(0.27)


[10.1%]

[9.6%]

[19.3%]


{-18.3%,38.9%}

{-33.3%,52.4%}

{-18.9%,57.8%}


Note: Standard errors of effects are in parentheses; the % changes in hospitalizations relative to the unaffected control group due to the cleft effects are listed in brackets (the 95% confidence intervals of these % changes are included in curly brackets); the effects are estimated following (Equation 1) for age groups 20-29 and older and (Equation 2) for younger age groups; * = p < 1; ** = p < 0.05; *** = p < 0.01; **** = p < 0.001. The effects are adjusted for all the covariates listed in (Equation 1) for ages 20 years and older and for covariates listed in (Equation 2) for younger ages.

Wehby et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:58   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-58

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