Table 3

Demographic, clinical and comorbid factors contribution to cost of care
Adjusted%change in costs over 12 months post-index date: All Patients (Accounting for loss to follow-up, costs recorded as zero post death) Adjusted change in costs over 12 months post-index date: Survivors (Includes patients who did not die; Accounting for loss to follow-up) Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) of death over 12 months post-index
Demographics
 Age (years) estimate CI estimate CI HR CI
20-59 81.70% (43.8% to 119.7%) 24.62% (4.04% to 45.20%) 0.38 (0.27 to 0.53)
60-64 85.60% (44.8% to 126.3%) 31.74% (9.90% to 53.58%) 0.37 (0.25 to 0.55)
65-69 95.40% (55.5% to 135.3%) 38.45% (16.91% to 59.98%) 0.38 (0.26 to 0.54)
70-74 75.80% (41.9% to 109.7%) 30.56% (11.53% to 49.60%) 0.48 (0.36 to 0.64)
75-79 69.60% (38.4% to 100.8%) 30.10% (12.24% to 47.96%) 0.54 (0.42 to 0.71)
80-84 24.90% (0.4% to 49.4%) 19.94% (2.96% to 26.93%) 0.81 (0.64 to 1.02)
85 years and over (reference)
 Gender
male (reference)
Female −14.80% (−24.0% to −5.6%) −12.74% (20.21% to −5.27%) 1.09 (0.92 to 1.30)
 Race
white (reference)
non-white −0.10% (−22.1% to 21.9%) 3.48% (−14.58% to 21.54%) 1.33 (0.90 to 1.97)
Clinical findings and measurements
 BMI (kg/m2)
<25 −11.00% (−26.7% to 4.6%) 13.16% (−2.11% to 28.43%) 1.78 (1.31 to 2.42)
25-34 −0.40% (−13.4% to 12.6%) 4.52% (−6.61% to 15.66%) 1.24 (0.94 to 1.63)
>=35 (reference)
 Smoking Status
current smoker −24.80% (−37.9% to −11.8%) −21.58% (−32.74% to −10.41%) 1.28 (0.96 to 1.70)
never or former smoker (reference)
 Systolic blood pressure (mm/hg)
<120 −8.00% (−20.3% to4.3%) 4.29% (−6.38% to 14.97%) 1.41 (1.14 to 1.74)
120-140 −10.10% (−20.5% to 0.2%) −2.40% (−11.08% to 6.29%) 1.26 (1.03 to 1.55)
>140 (reference)
 Hemoglobin
<11gm/dl −20.10% (−36.7% to −3.6%) 33.27% (14.18% to 52.37%) 2.08 (1.70 to 2.53)
>= 11gm/dl (reference)
 Renal function* (ml/min/1.73m2)
>=60 24.60% (−10.1% to 59.4%) −44.73% (−54.85% to −34.61%) 0.35 (0.27 to 0.45)
45-60 38.10% (−1.6% to 77.8%) −36.75% (−48.68% to −24.81%) 0.40 (0.30 to 0.52)
30-45 24.70% (−12.8% to 62.1%) −31.49% (−44.97% to −18.01%) 0.57 (0.44 to 0.74)
<30 (reference)
 Ejection fraction on echocardiogram(%)
>65 52.70% (1.5% to 103.4%) −3.00% (−26.81% to 20.81%) 0.43 (0.29 to 0.64)
51-65 50.70% (7.1% to 94.3%) −15.37% (−33.47% to 2.74%) 0.36 (0.27 to 0.49)
41-50 44.70% (0.3% to 89.0%) −14.80% (−34.20% to 4.60%) 0.39 (0.27 to 0.56)
31-40 47.10% (2.1% to 92.0%) −16.09% (−35.00% to 2.82%) 0.37 (0.26 to 0.53)
21-30 50.50% (4.3% to 96.8%) −5.38% (−26.83% to 16.07%) 0.44 (0.31 to 0.64)
1-20 (reference)
 Posterior wall thickness on echocardiogram (mm)
<11 9.70% (−2.0% to 21.4%) 9.83% (69.90% to 18.96%) 1.10 (0.92 to 1.30)
>=11 (reference)
Comorbid diagnoses
 Atrial fibrillation yes 15.30% (3.1% to 27.6%) 26.75% (16.72% to 36.79%) 1.08 (0.91 to 1.27)
no (reference)
 Aortic valvular disease yes 0.40% (−10.5% to 11.3%) 9.25% (35.73% to 18.14%) 1.22 (1.03 to 1.44)
no (reference)
 Coronary artery disease yes 13.90% (1.9% to 26.0%) 19.86% (10.19% to 29.53%) 1.09 (0.91 to 1.31)
no (reference)
 Chronic lung disease yes 29.20% (16.3% to 42.0%) 44.95% (33.82% to 56.08%) 1.25 (1.06 to 1.47)
no (reference)
 Depression yes 36.20% (18.6% to 53.8%) 64.00% (48.85% to 79.16%) 1.31 (1.08 to 1.58)
no (reference)
 Diabetes yes 37.80% (22.5% to 53.0%) 64.82% (51.37% to 78.26%) 1.38 (1.16 to 1.65)
no (reference)
 Hypothyroidism yes 1.40% (−13.1% to 15.8%) 21.20% (9.36% to 33.05%) 1.25 (1.02 to 1.52)
no (reference)
 Hyperlipidemia yes 21.40% (8.4% to 34.4%) 14.35% (5.11% to 23.60%) 0.87 (0.73 to 1.04)
no (reference)
 Peripheral vascular disease yes 13.20% (−4.0% to 30.3%) 37.31% (23.46% to 51.16%) 1.33 (1.10 to 1.62)
no (reference)
 Stroke yes −0.80% (−19.0% to 17.4%) 19.08% (4.99% to 33.16%) 1.37 (1.10 to 1.71)
no (reference)
 Transient ischemic attack yes 18.00% (−5.4% to 41.5%) 4.44% (−11.27% to 20.16%) 0.84 (0.63 to 1.14)
no (reference)

Smith et al.

Smith et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:434   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-434

Open Data