Table 1

Descriptive statistics of study sample
Measure Overall Pharmacist in clinic
YES NO
Clinic Characteristics
# Clinics 196 138 58
Community-based Clinic (%) 33.7 36.2 27.6
Study subjects per facility (mean/SD) 1,432 (870) 1,457 (891) 1,370 (822)
Minimum 241 241 253
Maximum 7,399 7,399 4,262
Total patients per facility (mean/SD) 28,162 (18,973) 28,873 (19,397) 26,469 (17,972)
Minimum 4,925 4,925 5,694
Maximum 108,694 108,694 90,024
Pharmacist FTE/10,000 clinic patients 1.03 (1.27) 1.46 (1.23) N/A
Pharmacist FTE/100K patient encounters 1.63 (2.13) 2.31 (2.21) N/A
Patient Characteristics
# Subjects 280,603 201,127 79,476
Age (mean/SD) 67.4 (11.0) 67.3 (11.0) 67.5 (10.9)
Female (%) 2.3 2.3 2.2
Married (%) 63.9 63.1 65.9
White Race (%) 73.0 71.5 76.8
Free care due to disability (%) 36.4 36.1 37.1
Free care due to low income (%) 35.3 35.8 34.2
No free care (%) 28.3 28.1 28.7
DCSI Score (mean/SD) 3.8 (1.2) 3.8 (1.2) 3.8 (1.2)
Primary care visits (mean/SD) 3.9 (3.0) 3.9 (3.1) 3.7 (2.8)
Total visits (mean/SD) 7.7 (9.7) 7.8 (10.0) 7.3 (8.8)
DCG Risk score (mean/SD) 0.9 (0.6) 0.9 (0.6) 0.9 (0.6)
Cumulative in hospital days (mean/SD) 0.2 (2.0) 0.2 (2.0) 0.2 (1.9)
Hospitalized during FY06 Q4 (%) 2.8 2.8 2.9
Hypertension (%) 64.1 64.8 62.1
Peripheral vascular disease (%) 1.3 1.3 1.3
Ischemic heart disease (%) 19.1 19.1 19.2
Myocardial Infarction (%) 1.3 1.3 1.4
Stroke (%) 2.5 2.6 2.1
Other cerebrovascular disease (%) 1.0 1.1 1.0
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (%) 7.6 7.4 8.1
Congestive heart failure (%) 4.0 3.9 4.3
Chronic renal failure (%) 2.6 2.7 2.3
Atrial fibrillation or flutter (%) 6.1 6.1 6.0
Dementia (%) 1.0 1.0 0.9
Alcohol abuse (%) 2.1 2.0 2.1
Drug Abuse (%) 7.1 7.0 7.5
Post-traumatic stress disorder (%) 7.2 7.4 6.8
Depression (%) 8.8 8.8 8.7
Schizophrenia (%) 1.7 1.8 1.6
Other mental illness (%) 1.7 1.8 1.6
Warfarin (%) 6.2 6.1 6.4
NPH insulin usage (%) 9.0 9.7 7.3

SD = Standard deviation; FTE = Full time equivalents; DCSI = Diabetes complications severity index; DCG = Diagnostic cost group; NPH = Neutral protamine Hagedorn; FY06 = Fiscal year; Q4 = Fourth quarter.

Kocarnik et al.

Kocarnik et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:391   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-391

Open Data