Table 3

Results of regression, logistic or cumulative logistic analysis showing the regression coefficients (β), odds ratios (OR) and cumulative odd ratios (COR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for health and social care costs and social care utilization
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Logarithm adjusted health care costs Social care utilization Cost of social care
Continuous variable Categorized into groups; yes, no Categorized into groups; under 1500, 1500-6000 or over 6000 €/year
n = 732 n = 732 n = 492
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
β (Cl 95%) β (Cl 95%) OR (Cl 95%) OR (Cl 95%) COR (Cl 95%) COR (Cl 95%)
Patient level
Rehabilitation
  Intervention 0.09 (-0.08, 0.26) 0.09 (-0.08, 0.26) 0.86 (0.62, 1.18) 0.88 (0.62, 1.26) 1.09 (0.78, 1.52) 1.13 (0.78, 1.64)
  Control 0 0 1 1 1 1
Gender
  Male -0.11 (-0.36, 0.14) 0.86 (0.54, 1.36) 1.70 (1.02, 2.82)* 1.43 (0.81, 2.55)
  Female 0 1 1 1
Age (five years) 0.02 (-0.04, 0.09) 1.41 (1.23, 1.60)* 1.30 (1.12, 1.51)* 1.12 (0.98, 1.28)
Location of residence
  Urban 0.20 (0.02, 0.39)* 0.08 (-0.11, 0.28) 2.02 (1.4, 2.91)* 1.45 (0.96, 2.19) 1.92 (1.29, 2.88)* 1.19 (0.75, 1.88)
  Rural 0 0 1 1 1 1
Living conditions †
  Home -0.34 (-0.70, 0.01)* -0.15 (-0.51, 0.22) 0.03 (0.01, 0.06)* 0.06 (0.03, 0.14)*
  Home with home help -0.05 (-0.40, 0.30) 0.00 (-0.34, 0.35) 0.37 (0.19, 0.70) 0.48 (0.25, 0.95)
  Sheltered housing or residential home 0 0 1 1
Living alone
  Not alone -0.26 (0.45, -0.07)* -0.14 (-0.36, 0.07) 0.33 (0.23, 0.48)* 0.41 (0.27, 0.62)* 0.29 (0.19, 0.45)* 0.48 (0.28, 0.80)*
  Alone 0 0 1 1 1 1
Availability of informal caregiver
  Not available 0.18 (-0.11, 0.46) 1.36 (0.80, 2.29)* 1.24 (0.68, 2.27)* 1.58 (0.89, 2.81)
  Occasionally 0.26 (0.02, 0.50) 2.02 (1.26, 3.22) 2.02 (1.17, 3.46) 1.45 (0.91, 2.31)
  When needed shortly 0.14 (-0.07, 0.35) 1.95 (1.30, 2.91) 1.68 (1.06, 2.65) 1.46 (0.96, 2.21)
  As long as needed 1 1 1
Receiving informal help
  No 0.15 (-0.05, 0.36) 1.33 (0.89, 1.98) 2.03 (1.35, 3.06)* 1.79 (1.12, 2.86)*
  Yes 0 1 1 1
Home care allowance
  No 0.09 (-0.33, 0.51) 0.99 (0.45, 2.19) 3.62 (1.54, 8.50)* 2.80 (1.01, 7.76)*
  Yes 0 1 1 1
Self-assessed change in health during preceding year
  Better -0.25 (-0.59, 0.08)* -0.16 (-0.50, 0.18) 2.82 (1.27, 6.24)* 3.81 (1.54, 9.40)* 1.07 (0.60, 1.93)
  Same -0.30 (-0.50, -0.01) -0.13 (-0.34, 0.08) 0.93 (0.65, 1.34) 1.22 (0.79, 1.90) 1.32 (0.89, 1.95)
  Worse 0 0 1 1 1
IADL(SD)1 0.11 (0.02, 0.19)* -0.01 (-0.04, 0.02) 1.44 (1.21, 1.72)* 1.29 (1.02, 1.64)* 1.92 (1.59, 2.31)* 1.60 (1.24, 2.06)*
GDS(SD)2 0.13 (0.04, 0.22)* 0.00 (-0.04, 0.04) 1.46 (1.22, 1.74)* 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)* 1.27 (1.06, 1.51)* 1.15 (0.93, 1.42)
MMSE(SD)3 0.03 (-0.06, 0.12) 0.74 (0.62, 0.88)* 0.81 (0.67, 0.98)* 0.82 (0.70, 0.97)* 0.90 (0.75, 1.08)
15D(SD)4 -0.26 (-0.34, -0.17)* -1.90 (-2.94, 0.85)* 0.72 (0.61, 0.86)* 1.00 (0.78, 1.27) 0.84 (0.71, 1.00)* 1.19 (0.96, 1.48)
FIM(SD)5 -0.18 (-0.27, -0.09)* -0.01 (-0.03, 0.00) 0.51 (0.41, 0.63)* 0.63 (0.48, 0.82)* 0.54 (0.44, 0.65)* 0.77 (0.61, 0.98)*
Municipality level
Combined health and social sectors in municipal
  Yes 0.07 (-0.10, 0.25) 1.09 (0.68, 1.76) 0.65 (0.42, 1.00)
  No 0 1 1

*= P<0.05.

Living conditions is not included in the models of social care utilization because it is logically too close to the despondence variable.

1 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher IADL scores indicates more difficulties.

2 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher GDS scores indicates more more depressiveness.

3 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher MMSE scores indicates less demented.

4 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher 15D scores indicates better health.

5 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher FIM scores indicates highest level of independence.

Costs of the utilization of health and social services.

Kehusmaa et al.

Kehusmaa et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:204   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-204

Open Data