Table 1

Summary of Economic Analyses

Article

Service Setting

Clinical Discipline

Study Type

Ec Analysis Type & Quality Score

Technology & Connectivity

Perspective

Cost Outcomes

Telehealth outcome vs usual care


Ruskin 2004[51]

Rural outpatient

Psychiatry

RCT

CMA 84

Computer,

ISDN

Health service

More

Same


Modai 2006[72]

Rural outpatient

Psychiatry

ProspCC

CCA 45

Not specified, ISDN

Health service

More

Same


O'Reilly 2007[73]

Rural outpatient

Psychiatry

RCT

CMA 54

VC, ISDN

Health service

Less

Same


Shore 2007[29]

Rural outpatient

Psychiatry

DiagAcc

CMA 57

VC, ISDN

Health service

Mixed1

Same


Crow 2009[35]

Rural outpatient

Psychology

RCT

CEA 77

Not specified, T1 line

Societal

Less (HS less)

Less2


Persaud 2005[53]

Rural outpatient

Psychiatry & dermatology

RetCoh

CMA 46

Not specified, 384 kbits/sec

Societal

Less (HS more)

Same


Oakley 2000[74]

Rural outpatient

Dermatology

RCT

CCA 15

Computer, ISDN

Patient

Less

Same


Loane 2001a[32]

Rural outpatient

Dermatology

RCT

CMA 70

Computer, ISDN

Societal

Less (HS more)

Same


Loane 2001b[59]

Rural outpatient

Dermatology

RCT

CMA 40

VC, ISDN

Health service

More

Same


Chua 2001[36]

Rural outpatient

Neurology

RCT

CCA 25

VC, ISDN

Health service

More

Less


Bergmo 1997[52]

Rural outpatient

Ear nose & throat

RetCoh

CMA 68

VC, ISDN

Societal

Less (HS less)

Same


Ohinmaa 2002[33]

Rural outpatient

Orthopaedics

RCT

CMA 71

VC, ISDN

Societal

Less (HS more)

Same


Bishai 2003[62]

Rural outpatient

Gynaecology

DiagAcc

CCA 84

VC, T1 line

Societal

More

More


Pronovost 2009[31]

Rural outpatient

Pain management

RCT

CMA 93

VC, broadband

Societal

Less (HS more)

Same


Johnston 2000[39]

Home care

Nursing

RCT

CCA 19

Not specified

Not specified

Health service

Less

Same


Smith 2002[42]

Home care

Nursing(CPAP)

DiagAcc

CMA 25

Custom, PSTN

Health service

Less

Same


Bohnenkamp 2004[41]

Home care

Nursing

NRT

CCA 35

TV, PSTN

Health service

Same

More


Finkelstein 2006[38]

Home care

Nursing

RCT

CCA 67

TV, PSTN

Health service

Less

More


Chan 2000[58]

Residential care

Dermatology

DiagAcc

CCA 32

VC, ISDN

Health service

Less

Less3


DeMaio 2001[43]

Home care

Infectious diseases

B&A

CMA 15

Vphone, ISDN

Health service

Less

Same


Jerant 2001[37]

Home care

Cardiology

RCT

CCA 67

Not specified PSTN

Health service

Less

More


Eron 2006[40]

Home care

Internal medicine

ProspCC

CCA 67

Not specified PSTN

Health service

Less

More


Rendina 1997[75]

Rural inpatient

Paediatric Cardiol

B&A

CBA 56

VC, T1 line

Health service

Less

Same


Sable 1999[55]

Rural inpatient

Paediatric Cardiol

DiagAcc

CBA 27

Computer ISDN

Health service

Less

More


Sicotte 2004[56]

Rural inpatient

Paediatric Cardiol

DiagAcc

CEA 63

VC, ISDN

Health service

More

More


Dowie 2007[71]

Rural inpatient

Paediatric Cardiol

ProspCoh

CCA 85

VC, ISDN

Societal

Mixed4 (HS more)

More


Ehlers 2008[76]

Rural inpatient

Neurology

EcModel

CUA 65

Computer, Not specified

Societal

Less (HS more)

More


Wong 2006[64]

Rural inpatient

Neurosurgery

RCT

CCA 64

VC, ISDN

Health service

More

Same


Noble 2005[61]

Rural inpatient

Emerg med

RCT

CCA 60

Not spec, ISDN

Societal

More

Same


Duchesne 2008[57]

Rural inpatient

Emerg med

B&A

CCA 34

VC, T1 line

Health service

Less

More


Kunkler 2007[60]

Rural inpatient

Oncology

RCT

CMA 64

VC, ISDN

Health service

Less

Same


Loane 2000[45]

Hosp to PCare

Dermatology

RCT

CMA 54

VC, ISDN

Health service

More

Same


Wootton 2000[46]

Hosp to PCare

Dermatology

RCT

CCA 81

VC, ISDN

Societal

More

Same


Jacklin 2003[47]

Hosp to PCare

General practice

RCT

CCA 92

Computer, ISDN

Societal

More

Same


Rosenfeld 2000[50]

Specialist on-call

Intensive Care

B&A

CCA 80

Computer, Not specified

Health service

Less

More


Breslow 2004[49]

Specialist on-call

Intensive Care

B&A

CCA 53

VC, T1 line

Health service

Less

More


B&A = before and after study, DiagAcc = diagnostic accuracy study, EcModel = economic modelling, NRT = non-random trial, ProspCC = prospective case control, ProspCoh = prospective cohort, RCT = randomised controlled trial, RetCoh = retrospective cohort study

ISDN = Integrated Services Digital Network, VC = videoconferencing, Vphone = videophone, Hosp to PCare = Hospital outpatients clinic to local health centre

CMA cost-miminisation analysis, CCA cost-consequences analysis, CBA cost-benefit analysis, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis

1. Cost more in 2003, and less in 2005

2. Less effective, but increased patient access to services

3. Worse diagnostic accuracy, but increased patient access to services

4. Cost less for neonates, more for other patient groups

Wade et al. BMC Health Services Research 2010 10:233   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-233

Open Data