Table 3

Details of the types of tobacco intervention activities performed in daily nursing practice (N = 254)

Rural (N = 115)

M (SD)a

Urban (N = 139)

M (SD)a

p value


Ask

Assess tobacco use status and history

3.2 (1.0)

3.3 (1.0)

.51

Advise (overall mean score)

2.8 (0.8)

2.8 (0.7)

.66

Advise to quit using tobacco

2.8 (1.0)

2.9 (1.0)

.83

Explain tobacco use effects

2.8 (0.9)

2.9 (0.8)

.41

Explain second-hand smoke effects

2.7 (1.0)

2.8 (0.9)

.66

Explain how tobacco contributed to illness

2.8 (0.9)

2.5 (1.0)

.01

Assess (overall mean score)

2.2 (0.8)

2.1 (0.8)

.19

Encourage patients to quitting again

2.5 (1.0)

2.5 (1.1)

.66

Motivate patients to quit

2.6 (1.0)

2.4 (1.1)

.16

Help set a quit-date

1.6 (0.8)

1.4 (0.6)

.10

Assist (overall mean score)

2.1 (0.7)

1.7 (0.6)

< .01

Suggest actions to quit or cut down

2.5 (0.9)

2.2 (1.0)

.01

Use written materials to help patients

2.4 (1.0)

1.6 (0.9)

< .01

Recommend alternatives for tobacco

2.3 (1.0)

2.1 (1.0)

.14

Recommend or suggest NRT

2.2 (1.0)

1.9 (1.0)

.01

Teach coping skills to prevent relapse

2.0 (0.9)

1.7 (0.9)

.01

Instruct on the use of pharmacotherapy

2.0 (0.9)

1.6 (0.9)

< .01

Recommend or suggest bupropion

1.8 (1.0)

1.4 (0.7)

< .01

Discuss patients' tobacco use with family

1.5 (0.8)

1.4 (0.6)

.04

Arrange (overall mean score)

2.1 (0.9)

1.6 (0.7)

< .01

Refer to cessation resources

2.1 (1.0)

1.7 (0.9)

< .01

Refer to other healthcare professionals

2.0 (1.0)

1.5 (0.8)

< .01


Note: Scale was 1 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = occasionally, and 4 = frequently. Using a Bonferroni adjustment for each family of comparisons for the 5A's, resulted in the p value set at: "ask" α = .05, "advise" α = .01, "assess" α = .02, "assist" α = .01, and "arrange" α = .03.

a M (SD) represents the arithmetic mean plus or minus one SD.

Smith et al. BMC Nursing 2012 11:6   doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-6

Open Data