Table 1 

Description of sample population 

Rural (N = 116) 
Urban (N = 141) 
p value 



Current work status fulltime % (n) 
72% (84) 
61% (86) 
.06 
Year of graduation, M ± SD 
1986 ± 12 
1989 ± 10 
.02 
Years worked in current area, M ± SD 
14 ± 11 
13 ± 10 
.59 
Smoking status 
.02 

Daily smoker % (n) 
9% (10) 
4% (6) 

Occasional smoker % (n) 
3% (3) 
7% (9) 

Former smoker % (n) 
36% (42) 
22% (30) 

Never smoker % (n) 
53% (61) 
67% (90) 

Stages of Change (for smokers) 
.95 

Precontemplating quitting % (n) 
33% (4) 
29% (4) 

Contemplating quitting % (n) 
58% (7) 
64% (9) 

Currently in process of quitting % (n) 
8% (1) 
7% (1) 

Time spent intervening with tobacco % (n) 
.12 

03 minutes 
35% (39) 
42% (58) 

310 minutes 
35% (39) 
21% (29) 

10+ minutes 
4% (4) 
4% (5) 

Does not counsel 
27% (30) 
33% (45) 

Provides tobacco cessation talks ^{a }M ± SD 
1.2 ± 0.6 
1.1 ± 0.4 
.15 
Believe brief advice to stop smoking is effective^{b} 
2.4 ± 0.9 
2.4 ± 1.0 
.58 
Attitude about intervening ^{b, c }M ± SD 
3.2 ± 0.5 
3.1 ± 0.5 
.18 
Confidence with intervening ^{d }M ± SD* 
2.6 ± 0.7 
2.3 ± 0.6 
< .01 
Tobacco counselling perceived as part of role 
.01 

Very much 
44% 
28% 

Somewhat 
53% 
63% 

Not at all 
3% 
9% 



Note. M represents the arithmetic mean and ± SD represents 1 standard deviation. There were less than 6 missing per group for all analyses except year of graduationrural was missing 7 and urban was missing 14. The p value was set at α = .01 using a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons for demographics and beliefs/confidence, and time spent. ^{a }Scale was 1 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = occasionally, and 4 = frequently. ^{b }Scored on a 4point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). ^{c }The mean represents the average of the 4 attitude items. ^{d }Scored on a 4point scale from 1 (not confident) to 4 (very confident). The mean represents the average of the 8 confidence items. 

Smith et al. BMC Nursing 2012 11:6 doi:10.1186/14726955116 