Table 1

Description of sample population

Rural

(N = 116)

Urban

(N = 141)

p value


Current work status full-time % (n)

72% (84)

61% (86)

.06

Year of graduation, M ± SD

1986 ± 12

1989 ± 10

.02

Years worked in current area, M ± SD

14 ± 11

13 ± 10

.59

Smoking status

.02

Daily smoker % (n)

9% (10)

4% (6)

Occasional smoker % (n)

3% (3)

7% (9)

Former smoker % (n)

36% (42)

22% (30)

Never smoker % (n)

53% (61)

67% (90)

Stages of Change (for smokers)

.95

Pre-contemplating quitting % (n)

33% (4)

29% (4)

Contemplating quitting % (n)

58% (7)

64% (9)

Currently in process of quitting % (n)

8% (1)

7% (1)

Time spent intervening with tobacco % (n)

.12

0-3 minutes

35% (39)

42% (58)

3-10 minutes

35% (39)

21% (29)

10+ minutes

4% (4)

4% (5)

Does not counsel

27% (30)

33% (45)

Provides tobacco cessation talks a M ± SD

1.2 ± 0.6

1.1 ± 0.4

.15

Believe brief advice to stop smoking is effectiveb

2.4 ± 0.9

2.4 ± 1.0

.58

Attitude about intervening b, c M ± SD

3.2 ± 0.5

3.1 ± 0.5

.18

Confidence with intervening d M ± SD*

2.6 ± 0.7

2.3 ± 0.6

< .01

Tobacco counselling perceived as part of role

.01

Very much

44%

28%

Somewhat

53%

63%

Not at all

3%

9%


Note. M represents the arithmetic mean and ± SD represents 1 standard deviation. There were less than 6 missing per group for all analyses except year of graduation--rural was missing 7 and urban was missing 14. The p value was set at α = .01 using a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons for demographics and beliefs/confidence, and time spent.

a Scale was 1 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = occasionally, and 4 = frequently.

b Scored on a 4-point scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree).

c The mean represents the average of the 4 attitude items.

d Scored on a 4-point scale from 1 (not confident) to 4 (very confident). The mean represents the average of the 8 confidence items.

Smith et al. BMC Nursing 2012 11:6   doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-6

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