Table 3

Group means (SD) and P-values from two-way ANOVA
Scalea Experimental conditions
Groupsb A & D B & C B & D A & C Main effect PES-format P-Valuec Main effect Hand-Books & Assess-ment format P-Valuec Inter-action effect P-Valuec
Dependent Variable No PES-format PES-Format No Handbooks and no Assessment format Handbooks & Assessment format
Accuracy of ND 4.0 (1.1) 5.4 (1.0) 4.8 (1.3) 4.7 (1.2) <0.001* 0.780 0.956
Number of relevant ND 4.0 (1.3) 3.8 (1.2) 3.9 (1.3) 3.9 (1.3) 0.148 0.956 0.612
Knowledge Inventory 3.4 (1.1) 3.5 (1.2) 3.6 (1.2) 3.3 (1.2) 0.553 0.025* 0.936
CCTDI
Truth-seeking 41.5 (5.9) 40.2 (5.5) 41.4 (4.9) 40.4 (6.1) 0.065 0.168 0.217
Open-Mindedness 37.9 (3.7) 37.3 (4.5) 37.2 (4.1) 37.8 (4.1) 0.303 0.308 0.268
Analyticity 43.5 (4.7) 44.2 (4.6) 44.4 (4.7) 43.5 (4.7) 0.259 0.174 0.067
Systematicity 44.8 (6.1) 46.2 (5.5) 45.9 (5.9) 45.3 (5.8) 0.063 0.441 0.039*
Self-confidence 44.2 (5.6) 44.2 (5.0) 44.8 (5.3) 43.9 (5.3) 0.953 0.186 0.207
Inquisitiveness 48.0 (5.8) 47.4 (5.3) 47.6 (6.0) 47.7 (5.2) 0.438 0.879 0.553
Maturity 44.0 (6.6) 44.3 (5.4) 44.3 (5.4) 44.0 (6.4) 0.693 0.754 0.173
HSRT
Analysis 3.0 (1.4) 2.9 (1.2) 3.0 (1.4) 2.9 (1.2) 0.617 0.545 0.320
Inference 2.6 (1.1) 2.8 (1.4) 2.7 (1.2) 2.8 (1.3) 0.135 0.553 0.504
Evaluation 4.8 (1.1) 4.8 (1.0) 4.8 (1.1) 4.7 (1.0) 0.693 0.507 0.891
Induction 7.0 (1.4) 7.2 (1.5) 7.2 (1.5) 7.1 (1.4) 0.311 0.683 0.949
Deduction 4.6 (2.1) 4.7 (2.1) 4.8 (2.0) 4.6 (2.2) 0.521 0.373 0.760

aMean (SD).

bGroup A had the opportunity to use handbooks and assessment format and free text format (blank paper).

Group B had the opportunity to use a predefined record structure (PES-Format).

Group C had the opportunity to use handbooks and assessment format and a predefined record structure (PES-Format).

Group D did not have the opportunity to use handbooks and assessment format or PES-Format at all (control group).

c ANOVA * P < .05.

Note: ND = nursing diagnoses; CCTDI = California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory; HSRT = Health Science Reasoning Test.

Paans et al.

Paans et al. BMC Nursing 2012 11:11   doi:10.1186/1472-6955-11-11

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