Table 1

Cohort characteristics (N=46,974 patient-days)
Derivation (n=23,127) Validation (n=23,847)
Number of Patients: 3624 3792
RED events a, n(%) 298 (1.3) 287 (1.2)
Demographics
Age, mean (SD) 50.5 (14.6) 51 (14.8)
Male, n(%) 2,062 (56.1) 2,049 (54)
Vital Signs, mean (SD)
Temperature (°F) 98.1 (1.6) 98.3 (1.8)
Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 139.8 (25.0) 139.6 (24.6)
Respirations per minute 21 (7.3) 20.7 (6.5)
Pulse per minute 91.3 (19.0) 92.1 (18.9)
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg) 83.8 (15.1) 83.9 (15.4)
SpO2 (%) 95.6 (5.1) 95.6 (5.0)
Laboratory Findings, mean (SD)
Platelets (103 cells/mm3) 242.3 (125.6) 237.8 (122.6)
Potassium (mEq/L) 4.0 (0.6) 4.0 (0.6)
Glucose (mg/dL) 128.6 (76.5) 127.8 (73.9)
Hematocrit (g/dL) 32.4 (6.8) 32.4 (6.7)
Creatinine (mg/dL) 2 (2.9) 1.8 (2.7)
White Blood Cell Count (103 cells/mm3) 8.6 (9.5) 8.6 (7.3)
Total Bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.5 (4.0) 1.5 (3.6)
Sodium (mEq/L) 135.8 (4.2) 135.8 (4.4)
Arterial pH 7.4 (0.1) 7.4 (0.1)
Arterial pCO2 (mm Hg) 37.5 (13.1) 38.9 (13.5)
AST (U/L) 95.6 (417.2) 74.5 (211.0)
Anion Gap 10.6 (3.9) 10.5 (4.0)
Albumin (g/dL) 3.2 (0.7) 3.2 (0.7)
B-type Natriuretic Peptide (pg/mL) 7,291.6 (14455.7) 6,357.2 (13019.8)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (μIU/mL) 5.4 (21.6) 4.4 (27.0)
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) 50.5 (17.7) 50.7 (17.3)
Level of Consciousness 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.3)
Provider Orders, n(%)
Bilevel positive airway pressure 122 (0.5) 178 (0.7)
Arterial Blood Gas 1,436 (6.2) 1,509 (6.3)
Troponin I 3,725 (16.1) 3,804 (16.0)
Electrocardiogram 4,996 (21.6) 5,143 (21.6)
Electroencephalogram 87 (0.4) 115 (0.5)
Telemetry 1,765 (7.6) 1,787 (7.5)
Stat order # 1 b 1,704 (7.4) 1,902 (8.0)
Stat order # 2 c 2,476 (10.7) 2,614 (11.0)
Administered Medications, n(%)
Institute of Safe Medication Practice High Alert Medication d 9,257 (40.0) 9,554 (40.1)
Systemic Steroids e 758 (3.3) 808 (3.4)
Sodium Bicarbonate 423 (1.8) 427 (1.8)
Lactulose or Rifaxamin 535 (2.3) 634 (2.7)
Antidote medication f 308 (1.3) 341 (1.4)
More than one nephrotoxic agent taken concurrently g 3,580 (15.5) 3,502 (14.7)
More than one antibiotic agent taken concurrently h 2,549 (11.0) 2,611 (11.0)
Intravenous fluid bolus 1,270 (5.5) 1,329 (5.6)
Stat acute coronary syndrome medications i 2,436 (10.5) 2,276 (9.5)
Stat seizure abatement medications j 1,069 (4.6) 1,234 (5.2)
Summary Variables
MEWS, mean (SD) k 2.2 (1.5) 2.2 (1.5)
High Risk Floor Assignment, n(%) l 2,369 (10.2) 2,348 (9.9)

a Resuscitation events and death; b Stat orders for head magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan, chest plain film x-rays or computed tomography scan, and abdominal ultrasonography; c Stat orders for complete blood count, bilevel positive airway pressure, arterial blood gas, troponin, electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram; d antithrombotic agents, chemotherapeutic agents, epidural or intrathecal route of administration, hypoglycemic, magnesium sulfate injection, hypertonic sodium chloride, colchicine injection, and methotrexate oral; e IV or oral prednisone, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, fludricortisone and hydrocortisone; f Protamine, naloxone, phytonadione, flumazenil; g Systemic amphotericin B (lipid and conventional), systemic aminoglycosides, scheduled daily non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, IV vancomycin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, loop diuretics, penicillin antibiotics, acyclovir; h Any aminoglycoside, penicillin, cephalosporin, vancomycin, sulfa antibiotic, linezolid, doxycycline, tigecycline, fluoroquinolone, aztreonam, carbapenem, daptomycin, and nitrofurantoin; i IV metoprolol, sublingual or IV nitroglycerin and aspirin given concurrently; j intramuscular lorazepam or diazepam, phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, and phenytoin; k elements consists of systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, and level of consciousness; l includes floors that comprise the top 15% of events.

Alvarez et al.

Alvarez et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2013 13:28   doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-28

Open Data