Open Access Research article

Health numeracy in Japan: measures of basic numeracy account for framing bias in a highly numerate population

Masako Okamoto1*, Yasushi Kyutoku2, Manabu Sawada3, Lester Clowney2, Eiju Watanabe2, Ippeita Dan2 and Keiko Kawamoto1

Author Affiliations

1 Research Center for Animal Hygiene and Food Safety, Obihiro University of Agriculture & Veterinary Medicine, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan

2 Functional Brain Science Laboratory, Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan

3 Department of Agro-Environmental Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan

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BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2012, 12:104  doi:10.1186/1472-6947-12-104

Published: 11 September 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1. Education levels of the Japanese population. Education histories for different generations and genders. Percentage of people with a high school education or lower in the Japanese adult population for each category is shown based on the latest national survey (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, as of October 1, 2007). Sampling quotas in the current study were allocated according to this proportion.

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Additional file 2:

Table S2. Household income of the Japanese population. Percentage of people in each household income category in the Japanese adult population (Population column) and in the current sample (Sample column). Data is based on the latest national survey (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, as of October 1, 2007).

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Additional file 3:

Table S3. Numeracy scores for each demographic sub-group. Mean ± standard deviation is shown for each sub-group. Scores between subgroups were compared using non-parametric methods, but means are presented because median scores did not show differences between sub-groups. The effect of gender and educational attainment was significant for both scales (Mann–Whitney's test, effect of gender, Schwartz-J, Z=2.6, p<0.01; Lipkus-J9, Z=2.6, p<0.01; effect of education, Schwartz-J, Z=2.0, p<0.05; Lipkus-J9, Z=2.3, p<0.05). The effect of age was significant only for Schwartz-J, where post hoc analysis revealed that the 40-49 year old group performed significantly better than the 60-69 year old group (Mann-Whitney's test, Z=2.9, p<0.05, Bonferroni corrected).

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