Figure 1.

Decision tree for administration of treatment. In this figure, p = P(D +) is the probability associated with the presence of a disease; 1 - p = P(D -) is the probability associated with the absence of the disease; Ui, i ∈ [1,4], are the utilities corresponding to each outcome. Note that we use the term "treatment" in the generic sense of health care intervention, which may indicate therapy, procedure, or a diagnostic test.

Tsalatsanis et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2010 10:51   doi:10.1186/1472-6947-10-51
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