Decision tree for administration of treatment. In this figure, p = P(D +) is the probability associated with the presence of a disease; 1 - p = P(D -) is the probability associated with the absence of the disease; Ui, i ∈ [1,4], are the utilities corresponding to each outcome. Note that we use the term "treatment" in the generic sense of health care intervention, which may indicate therapy, procedure, or a diagnostic test.
Tsalatsanis et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2010 10:51 doi:10.1186/1472-6947-10-51