Table 1

Summary of regulation*

Country

National legislation and effect, or approach in the absence of national legislation


Australia

Prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Austria

Act No.275 of 1st July 1992: Implicitly prohibits both RC and NRC

Belgium

Law of 11th May 2003: Prohibits RC but permits NRC

Canada

Assisted Human Reproduction Act 2004: Prohibits both RC and NRC

China

None Ministerial regulations prohibit RC and allow NRC

Denmark

Law No.460 of 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Finland

Medical Research Act No.488 of 1999: Prohibits RC, but NRC might not be included within this prohibition

France

Law of July 2004: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Germany

Embryo Protection Act 1990: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Greece

Law 3089 of 23rd December 2002: Prohibits RC, but does not cover NRC

Iceland

Law No. 55 of 29th of May 1996: Prohibits both RC and NRC

India

None Guidelines reject RC but might allow NRC

Ireland

None Constitutional provision might prohibit both NRC and RC

Israel

Prohibition of Genetic Intervention (Human Cloning and Genetic Manipulation of Reproductive Cells) Law 1999: Imposes a moratorium on RC, silent on NRC

Italy

Law of 2003: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Korea

Bioethics Law 2003: Prohibits RC, silent on NRC

Luxembourg

None

Mexico

General Health Law of 7 May 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Netherlands

Embryo Act 2002: Prohibits RC and imposes a moratorium on NRC

New Zealand

Medicines (Restricted Biotechnical Procedures) Amendment Act 2002: Prohibits RC, silent on NRC

Norway

Law No. 100 of 5 December 2003: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Peru

General Law No. 26842 of 9 July 1997: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Portugal

None Ratified Convention (discussed below)

Russia

Law on the Temporary Prohibition of Human Cloning 2002: Imposes a Moratorium on RC

Spain

Law 35 of November 1988: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Sweden

Law No. 115 of 14th March 1991: Implicitly prohibits both RC and NRC (with possible gaps)

Switzerland

Federal Law of 18 December 1998: Prohibits both RC and NRC

Thailand

None

UK

Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: Permits NRC under licence Human Reproductive Cloning Act 2001: Prohibits RC

United States

None Some states have legislation prohibiting RC or both RC and NRC


* The International Digest of Health Legislation http://www3.who.int webcite provides translations of the legislation of Austria (1993, vol 44); Denmark (1997, vol 48); Israel (2000, vol 51), Norway (2003, vol 54), Peru (1998, vol 49), and Switzerland (1999, vol 50, and 2003, vol 54). The Bulletin of Medical Ethics provides translations of the legislation of Finland (Feb 2000, p7) and Germany (Dec 1990, p9). In addition, we have used English translations of the legislation of Greece http://www.coe.int webcite, the Netherlands http://www.minvws.nl webcite, and Sweden (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Swedish Act concerning Use of Gene Technology on Human Beings and Experiments with Fertilised Ova, 1991).

Pattinson and Caulfield BMC Medical Ethics 2004 5:9   doi:10.1186/1472-6939-5-9

Open Data