Table 2

Findings Supported by the Use of the HGDP Diversity Panel

Type

Publication

Excerpt from Abstract

Interpretation


Addiction

Bierut, L. J., et al. (2008). "Variants in nicotinic receptors and risk for nicotine dependence." Am J Psychiatry 165(9): 1163-71.

"A genetic variant marking an amino acid change showed association with the smoking phenotype (p = 0.007)...t its frequency varied across human populations (0% in African populations to 37% in European populations)."

Europeans are More Susceptible to Nicotine Dependence [29]

Ancestry

Need, A. C., et al. (2009). "A genome-wide genetic signature of Jewish ancestry perfectly separates individuals with and without full Jewish ancestry in a large random sample of European Americans." Genome Biol 10(1): R7.

".. within Americans of European ancestry there is a perfect genetic corollary of Jewish ancestry which, in principle, would permit near perfect genetic inference of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry."

Jewish People are Genetically Distinct [30]

Genetic Variation

Rosenberg, N. A., et al. (2002). "Genetic structure of human populations." Science 298(5602): 2381-2385.

"...without using prior information about the origins of individuals, we identified six main genetic clusters, five of which correspond to major geographic regions, and subclusters that often correspond to individual populations."

Racial and/or Ethnic Group Differences are "Real" (i.e. Genetic) [31]

Mental Illness

Gardner, M., A., et al. (2006). "Extreme population differences across Neuregulin 1 gene, with implications for association studies." Molecular Psychiatry 11(1): 66-75.

"... allele differences are especially relevant in two SNPs located in a large intron of the gene, as shown by the extreme FST values, which reveal genetic stratification correlated to broad continental areas."

Populations Differ Significantly in Schizophrenia Susceptibility [32]

Natural Selection

Mekel-Bobrov, N., et al. (2005). "Ongoing adaptive evolution of ASPM, a brain size determinant in Homo sapiens." Science 309(5741): 1720-1722.

".. one genetic variant of ASPM in humans arose merely about 5800 years ago and has since swept to high frequency under strong positive selection. These findings... suggest that the human brain is still undergoing rapid adaptive evolution."

Brain Size has Evolved More Rapidly in Non-African Populations [33]


Fullerton and Lee BMC Medical Ethics 2011 12:16   doi:10.1186/1472-6939-12-16

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