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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

The role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of workplace based assessments: a systematic review

Habiba Saedon1*, Shizalia Salleh2, Arun Balakrishnan3, Christopher HE Imray4 and Mahmud Saedon5

Author affiliations

1 Department of Ophthalmology, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK

2 Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry, UK

3 Department of Vascular Surgery, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

4 Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire and Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

5 Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

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Citation and License

BMC Medical Education 2012, 12:25  doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-25

Published: 2 May 2012

Abstract

Background

With recent emphasis placed on workplace based assessment (WBA) as a method of formative performance assessment, there is limited evidence in the current literature regarding the role of feedback in improving the effectiveness of WBA. The aim of this systematic review was to elucidate the impact of feedback on the effectiveness of WBA in postgraduate medical training.

Methods

Searches were conducted using the following bibliographic databases to identify original published studies related to WBA and the role of feedback: Medline (1950-December 2010), Embase (1980-December 2010) and Journals@Ovid (English language only, 1996-December 2010). Studies which attempted to evaluate the role of feedback in WBA involving postgraduate doctors were included.

Results

15 identified studies met the inclusion criteria and minimum quality threshold. They were heterogeneous in methodological design. 7 studies focused on multi source feedback, 3 studies were based on mini-clinical evaluation exercise, 2 looked at procedural based assessment, one study looked at workplace based assessments in general and 2 studies looked at a combination of 3 to 6 workplace based assessments. 7 studies originated from the United Kingdom. Others were from Canada, the United States and New Zealand. Study populations were doctors in various grades of training from a wide range of specialties including general practice, general medicine, general surgery, dermatology, paediatrics and anaesthetics. All studies were prospective in design, and non-comparative descriptive or observational studies using a variety of methods including questionnaires, one to one interviews and focus groups.

Conclusions

The evidence base contains few high quality conclusive studies and more studies are required to provide further evidence for the effect of feedback from workplace based assessment on subsequent performance. There is, however, good evidence that if well implemented, feedback from workplace based assessments, particularly multisource feedback, leads to a perceived positive effect on practice.