Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Studies

Study design

Implementation year

School/country

Grade/Number of students

Instructor

Course integrated into

Duration/

frequency

Content

Teaching format

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h


Halbach 2005

Pre/post survey

2000-01,

2001-02,

2002-03

New York Medical College (USA)

3/572

Standardized patients;

Family physicians;

Behavioral medicine faculty

Family medicine clerkship

4 hours/1

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

Madigosky 2006

Pre/post survey

2003-2004

University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine (USA)

2/92

Volunteer faculty;

Ethicists;

Medical education experts

Introduction to patient care course

10.5 hours/NR

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

Moskowitz 2007

Pre/post survey

2005

Jefferson Medical College (USA)

3/229

Staff in medical education and health care;

Clinical faculty in different specialties;

High-level directors from four institutes#

Plenary session and workshops

1 day

×

×

×

×

×

Anderson 2009

Control study

Pre/post survey

NR

University of Leicester (UK)

NR/199

Medical education experts

First-aid care course

1 day/9

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

Patey 2009

Pre survey

2004.9-2005.6

Aberdeen Royal Infirmary (UK)

4/110

Anesthetists, physician; industrial psychologist;Clinical psychologist

Core curriculum

5 hours/11

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

Paxton 2009

Pre/post survey

2005.12-2006.12

Henry Ford Hospital (USA)

2+3+4/2+33+1

Surgical residents; Attending staff;

Teaching assistants

Clinical rotation

1.5 hours/NR

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

Gunderson 2009

Pre/post survey

2006 spring

University of Illinois at Chicago (USA)

NR/18

Course directors;

Observing faculty; Risk-management experts

Optional courses

30 hours/NR

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×

×


Total

NR/1256

5

4

4

2

3

3

4

2

7

3

5

1

5

3

1

2


NR: Not Report;

# high-level executives from National Patient Safety Agency(NPSA), American Association for the Improvement of Clinical Service, Quality and Safety Research Group, Johns Hopkins University and the dean of the medical school

Content: A. medical error, including disclosure/communication and reporting system; B. human factors engineering; C. systems theory/knowledge; D. patient safety regulations/legislation; E. teamwork principles; F. system approach and solutions; G. quality improvement methods, including root cause analysis; H. others

Teaching formats: a. interactive lectures/discussion; b. readings; c. case-based learning/discussion; d. seminars; e. small-group discussion; f. role-play; g. interdisciplinary team-working; h. simulation with a standardized patient

Nie et al. BMC Medical Education 2011 11:33   doi:10.1186/1472-6920-11-33

Open Data