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Open Access Research article

S-allylmercaptocysteine scavenges hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen in vitro and attenuates gentamicin-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress and renal damage in vivo

José Pedraza-Chaverrí1*, Diana Barrera1, Perla D Maldonado1, Yolanda I Chirino1, Norma A Macías-Ruvalcaba2, Omar N Medina-Campos1, Leticia Castro1, Marcos I Salcedo1 and Rogelio Hernández-Pando3

Author Affiliations

1 Facultad de Química, Edificio B, Segundo Piso, Laboratorio 209, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, México, D.F., México

2 Facultad de Química, Edificio B, Laboratorio 124, Departmento de Química Orgánica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad Universitaria 04510, México, D.F., México

3 Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", Departmento de Patología, 14000, México, D.F., México

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BMC Clinical Pharmacology 2004, 4:5  doi:10.1186/1472-6904-4-5

Published: 30 April 2004

Abstract

Background

Oxidative and nitrosative stress have been involved in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of S-allylmercaptocysteine, a garlic derived compound, on gentamicin-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress and nephrotoxicity. In addition, the in vitro reactive oxygen species scavenging properties of S-allylmercaptocysteine were studied.

Results

S-allylmercaptocysteine was able to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen in vitro. In rats treated with gentamicin (70 mg/Kg body weight, subcutaneously, every 12 h, for 4 days), renal oxidative stress was made evident by the increase in protein carbonyl content and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and the nitrosative stress was made evident by the increase in 3-nitrotyrosine. In addition, gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was evident by the: (1) decrease in creatinine clearance and in activity of circulating glutathione peroxidase, and (2) increase in urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and (3) necrosis of proximal tubular cells. Gentamicin-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress and nephrotoxicity were attenuated by S-allylmercaptocysteine treatment (100 mg/Kg body weight, intragastrically, 24 h before the first dose of gentamicin and 50 mg/Kg body weight, intragastrically, every 12 h, for 4 days along gentamicin-treatment).

Conclusion

In conclusion, S-allylmercaptocysteine is able to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen in vitro and to ameliorate the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative and nitrosative stress in vivo.